Keywords Abstract
Wojtowicz, Jerzy, and Kazimier Butelski. "A Case Study of the Virtual Design Studio in Practice: the Olympic Stadium forKrakow 2006 ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 253-261. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. Continually being redeveloped since its inception six years ago, Virtual Design Studio (VDS) represents a new method of practicing and teaching design. This paper focuses on a recent project which used VDS in a professional context: a design competition entry for the 2006 Winter Olympic Games. Separated by six time zones, the authors offer distinctive views of VDS, discussing the creative aspects of long-distance design collaboration using both synchronous and asynchronous modes of communication. The authors consider Information Technology (IT) as a facilitator for design collaboration, and examine in this paper the extent to which this new condition expands the possibilities of creative design work. 
Klercker, Af. "A CAVE-Interface in CAAD-Education." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 110-115. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. The so called “CAVE-interface” is a very interesting and thrilling development for architects! It supports a better illusion of space by exposing almost a 270° view of a computer model than the 60° which can be viewed on an ordinary computer screen. At the Lund University we have got the possibility to experiment with a CAVE-installation, using it in research and the education of CAAD. The technique and two experiments are discribed. The possibilities are discussed and some problems and questions are put forward.
Wong, R., C. Yeung, and C. Kan. "A Virtual Campus Kiosk ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 262-266. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper presents an Internet-based kiosk displaying the campus of the University of Hong Kong in a virtual reality environment. The objective is to construct an online guided-tour system for the campus and provide visitor information. The virtual campus indeed can be accessible through any Java-enabled WWW browser with VRML capability in addition to the kiosks. An automatic way-finding mechanism has also been implemented to help visitors to look up places within the campus. We will discuss the design of the enviroment, the construction of the 3D campus model, the techniques used to achieve reasonable navigation performance even on low-end systems, and the algorithm of the way-finding mechanism. The algorithm is based on graph theory to compute the shortest paths between any two locations inside the campus with various intelligent constraints.  
Colajanni, B, D. Faconti, and G. Pellitteri. "ABD: an Auxiliary Tool to Design Brick Walls ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 38-43. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. A hypertext is presented thought as an aid to design brick walls but also as a didactic tool aimed at understanding the different ways in which the brickwork can be dealt with: history, production, technology. The hypertext allows designing and drawing external walls according to the most traditional bonds, controlling the reciprocal consistency of the dimensions of the elements constituting the wall of a building perimete
Dassori, Enrico, and Tiziana Ottonello. "Acoustic Analysis by Computer Simulation for Building Restoration." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 61-67. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.

This paper presents the result of a didactic experience about the acoustic analysis of same ancient churches, in the study on the propagation of musical sound and, finally, in the proposal of acoustic modification with light interventions.

Kavakli, Manolya. "An IT-based Strategy for Design Education: Knowledge Engineering." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 101-109. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. University education is considered to be a “knowledge industry” in a knowledge society. In this paper we describe education as the knowledge transfer from one intelligent system to another, and draw upon the experience in Artificial Intelligence in order to apply it as an active knowledge acquisition strategy for the use of Human Intelligence. In current educational strategies, too often students are treated as passive recipients of knowledge unlike their counterparts (knowledge engineers) in Artificial Intelligence. In design education, we should be concerned with providing students the ability to extract the acquired knowledge from their teachers. In this paper, we put six hypotheses and prove each of them by discussing the methodology of Knowledge Acquisition to improve the process of design education. For an active learning strategy in Knowledge Acquisition, we turn to the wealth of experience made in Knowledge Engineering. In our analogy, we consider students to be Knowledge Engineers, designers to be Knowledge Based Systems, teachers to be the domain experts, and the learning process to equal the Knowledge Acquisition process in Expert System development. Thus, we suggest the use of Knowledge Engineering methods in the acquisition of design knowledge to build a knowledge base. A well-defined knowledge base represented in a Knowledge Based System can serve as a reasoning mechanism for the design actions that are unteachable in characteristics.  
Brunetta, Vincent. "Analyse architecturale et infographie ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 239-252. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.
Redondo, Ernest, and Xavier Sanchez. "Apprendre des machines ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 208-217. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Approach to Computer Implementation in Architectural Curriculum ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 8-Ar. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper examines traditional teaching methods in architecture and identifies opportunities which are offered by computers for changing the teaching process. Introduction of CAAD to the teaching schedules unquestionably and explicity uncovered a need of changes within the whole schedule of study. In this paper we will submit the thesis that the problem does not lay in how will CAAD be incorporated into the architectural curriculum, because it is the CAAD that has the potential to become an integrating factor of architectural curriculum.
Daru, Roel. "Architectural Bitmanship: Towards New Experiments in Architectural Education ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 44-60. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. Crafts and craftmanship are about internalised skilled activities, practiced by individuals. According to the particular tools, materials and know-how used in history, it is possible to make distinctions and shows common roots between physical craftmanship, penmanship, draughtsmanship and (in our information age) digital craftsmanship. Every era develops its own crafts and demands its own system of education and pedagogical experiments to achieve the necessary skills. After retelling a very compressed history of all sorts of skills with their accompanying educational experiments in architecture, this paper suggest new experiments needed and required for the nascent era of digital craftsmanship  
QaQish, Ra'Ed. "Assessing CAD Learning Environment and CAL Materials in Association with theOverall Effectiveness of CAD Integration Domains ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 196-207. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper report on the findings of an empirical case study undertook at Mackintosh School of Architecture/ University of Glasgow study. The study investigated several questions concerning the efficiency of CAD teaching in the design studio in tandem with the CAD learning environment and materials. The study investigated the computer-aided learning in the AutoCAD course at Mackintosh School of Architecture using 35 students at the second year design studio as a vehicle. The methods of this investigation consisted of classroom observations and administering questionnaires to students. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the CAD learning environment and administered materials were effective in generating supplementary strategies in the design studio. Another objective was to evaluate the computer lab as an optional design studio space in the future settings of schools of architecture. Principally, the study attempted to locate the areas where CAD teaching lapses in relation to the design studio. To arrive at this, several variables were investigated such as the levels of students? performance, attitudes and skills against the learning environment and the overall effectiveness of CAD. The findings of this study may provide some answers to the problems of CAD integration with the design studio. In addition, the questionnaire used in this case study may prove to be helpful as an evaluation tool of CAD courses when integrated with the design studio.  
Boutros, N., T. Sehad, and A. Constans. "Aujourd'hui, entre l'agence et l'école, quelle utilisation des nouvelles technologies de l'information - Histoire d'une méthode." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 15-Se. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.
Verbeke, Johan, and Tom Provoost. "AVOCAAD, the Scheme ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 239-252. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. The Leonardo da Vinci pilot project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design) aims to innovate the use of computers in architecture. Hereto, new course materials and structures are developed. Focus is on new unusual ways to use software in Architecture. In this paper, we first describe the context using the general AVOCAAD statement. In order to give structure to the developed materials, a scheme was developed. This AVOCAAD scheme is given and described. Some examples of concrete course materials are given in the next section. In order to innovate in the architectural curriculum as well as in design offices, these materials will be available through the Internet. Hereto, a web-structure for the exercises was developed. Some experience and conclusions are given in the final section.  
Hanna, R.. "Can IT bridge the Gulf between Science and Architecture? ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 78-86. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. The integration of technology into design work has always been seen as one of the serious problems in design education. In architecture the weak integration between architectural science, a subject based on objective knowledge, and artistic design which is based on tacit knowledge and creativity is a problem that has been debated to great length, and an issue of great importance to both academics and professionals. This paper raises the question: can a proper use of IT, both as a design tool and/or as a performance analysis tool, foster better integration and strengthen design quality? This paper investigates the relationship between Science, Design and Computer Aided Design. It aims to both highlight the problems facing the integration between architectural science and design, and describe a framework within which they can be analysed. The paper critically examines the following: a) The perceived gulf between science and design b) The parallels between hypothesis in design and hypothesis in science c) The basis of architectural design: intuition or research? d) Architectural Science and Computer Aided Design (CAD) and the role they can play into bringing about a marriage between science and design.The paper concludes by developing a conceptual framework that can be used as a vehicle to build a CAD system for use during the design process.
Moorhouse, John. "Categorisation of Computer-Aide-Design Actions Through Visual Exemplification ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 164-171. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper summarises, in a preliminary announcement, some outcomes arising from the author's research. A Developed Methodology for Recording, Evaluating and Presenting CAAD as a Vehicle for Designing?, in which a methodology for making visually explicit the design actions of architects has been designed, developed and tested. Specifically it describes the categorisation of computer-aided design actions through visual exemplification, whereby “Categories of Action? of creative computer activity are constructed from, and defined by, grouped visual records of “Design Moves” which exhibit similarity in character. The value of examining design actions as a means to stimulate and enhance creativity for other designers is explained, and the methodology developed and employed in order to construct a resource to do this is outlined. The main body of the paper focuses on descriptions of selected, constructed “Categories of Action” which are outcomes from analysis of material collected as part of this research. Conclusions are drawn on their relevance to the designer and suggestions for further synthesis of the Categories of Action are offered.  
Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga. "Chaos, Databases and Fractal Dimension of Regional Architecture." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 267-270. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. Modern research on chaos started in the 60's from an incredible finding that simple mathematical equations can model systems as complicated as waterfalls. In the 70's some scientists in the USA and in Europe started to find their way through the chaos. They were dealing with different spheres of science: mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, physiology, ecology, economy. In the next 10 years? time the term'chaos'has become generally known in science. Scientists gather in research groups according to their interests as to chaos and secondly according to their scientific specialities. (Gleick 1996) Objects that described chaos were irregular in shape, ripped. In 1975 Benoit Mandelbrot called them fractals. Fractal dimension that described fractal objects was also his invention. Fractal dimension is a way to measure quality: the degree of harshness, uneveness, irregularity of a given object. Carl Bovill (1996) showed how one can use fractal geometry in architecture and designing. This very fact made me try to use fractal geometry to deal with regional architecture. What or who is the degree of regionality of a given object to be for? A specially qualified person is able to state it nearly automatically. However, regionality is in some sense an unmeasurable feature. While dealing with data basis or checking particular projects, creation of procedures of automatic acquiring information concerning regionality is becoming a necessity.
Montagu, A., and Julio Bermudez. "Datarq: the Development of a Website of Modern Contemporary Architecture." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. The pedagogic approach in the architectural field is suffering a deep change taking in consideration the impact that has been produced mainly by the CAD and multimedia procedures. An additional view to be taken in consideration is the challenge produced by the influence of advanced IT which since 1990-92, has affected positively the exchange of information among people of the academic environment. Several studies confirm this hypothesis, from the wide cultural spectrum when the digitalization process was emerging as an alternative way to data processing (Bateson 1976) to the pedagogical-computational side analyzed by (Papert 1996). One of the main characteristics indicated by S. Papert (op.cit) is the idea of “self teaching” which students are used everywhere due to the constant augment of “friendly” software and the decreasing costs of hardware. Another consequences to point out by S. Paper (op.cit) is that will be more probably that students at home will have more actualized equipment that most of the computer lab. of schools in general. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this paper is, “if we are able to combine usual tutorials design methods with the concept of “self-teaching” regarding the paradigmatic architectural models that are used in practically all the schools of architecture (Le Corbusier, F.L.Wright, M.v. der Rohe, M.Botta, T.Ando, etc.) using a Web site available to everybody, what we are doing is expanding the existing knowledge in the libraries and fulfill the future requirements of the newly generations of studentsi. 
Dobson, Adrian. "Exploring Conceptual Design using CAD Visualisation and Virtual Reality Modelling ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 68-71. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper evaluates the possibilities for the use of computer aided design and desktop virtual reality technologies as tools for architectural composition. An experimental teaching programme involving undergraduate architectural students at the University of Luton, in which aspects of compositional theory are explored through the direct creation of architectural form and space in digital formats is described. In the programme principles of architectural composition, based upon the ordering and organisation of typological architectural elements according to established rules of composition are introduced to the students through the study of recognised works of design theory. CAD and desktop virtual reality are then used to define and manipulate architectural elements, and to make formal and spatial evaluations of the environments created. The paper describes the theoretical context of the work, assesses the suitability of the software used for performing compositional manipulations, and evaluates the qualities of immersion and intuitive feedback which virtual reality based modelling can offer in the design visualisation process. The teaching programme utilises standard software packages, including AutoCAD, and 3D Studio, as well as Superscape VRT, a PC based desktop VR package.  
Saggio, Antonino. "HyperArchitecture ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 224-227. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. The “Universale d'architettura” is a pocket book series which is now arrived at 40 titles. Printed by Testo&Immagine in Turin it is directed by Bruno Zevi. It has a very large public, being distributed in newstands, in bookstores and mailed to subscribers at a very convenient price (6 dollars each). Many of its titles will soon appear in English, French, Spanish and German. The book series is divided into different sections (monographs, essays, architectural guides, anthologies) and in April 1988 a new section has been introduced. “La rivoluzione informatica” (“The Information revolution”) is the title and Antonino Saggio is the curator. Scope of this new section is to bring closer architecture and computers by providing intellectual and cultural tools to orient the reader in a fast growing filed. The first book (Luigi Prestinenza Puglisi, Hyperarchitecture. Spaces in the electronic era) is an essay that combines a critical overview of most recent projects by Ito, Arakama, Koolhaas, Libeskind with epistemological consideration and researches coming from conceptual art. Three key words organized the material: projection, mutation, simulation. The next book (Gerhard Schmitt, Information architecture) deals with foundation and future of Caad systems and it can be seen from one side as an extremely updated manual and from the other as the construction of the developing lines of Caad research. Other forthcoming titles include: Virtual Terragni, How works the Eisenman Office, Design and Build with Computers. “La rivoluzione informatica” is (not only in Italy but also, quite probably, anywhere) the only book series which addresses the theme of architectural design in the electronic era. To better understand its scope, character and goals, it follows the Afterward by Saggio to the first book.  
van Leeuwen, Jos, T. Dubbelman, and Henri Achten. "ICT as a Means of Education." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 131-137. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. ICT and architecture are often viewed as separate subjects, that can also be taught separately. If the goal of teaching is to produce learned designers, then it is necessary to combine both issues into a single course. The paper presents the innovation of a traditional CAD course that suffered from decreasing results. We present the problems identified in the existing course and the measures taken to reorganise the contents and didactical approach of the course. The paper focuses on the innovation of the course by the introduction of information and communication technologies (ICT) both in the contents of the course and as a means of education. Abandoning printed images as the result of students? work, the new course required students to create a web page to present their efforts on architectural design, modelling, and visualisation. This had a beneficial effect on the students? attitude and enthusiasm for the course. It also allowed better planning of the course in terms of
Chambers, Tom, and John Wood. "Information Technology in the Building Design Engineering Studio ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 26-30. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper reports on the activities of CADET in the design studio environment and in a variety of community contexts with the objective of developing a strategy for teaching design within the context of design, art, architecture and engineering. It begins with an outline of earlier design projects, in a variety of traditional media and in CAAD at several levels within the Undergraduate programme at the University of Strathclyde together with community organisations. It then outlines a model with a number of strands that explore the principles of visual communication which are fundamental to both the development and communication of design ideas. The report will place these activities in the context of developments in education and the wider sphere of cultural heritage, which ultimately inform understanding and knowledge of our architectural and design heritage. It will highlight and explore some important ideas that inform our judgment of aesthetic forms and refer students to relevant texts and precedents in art, design, engineering and architecture.
Heylighen, A., R. Segers, and Herman Neuckermans. "InterAction through Information ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 87-92. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. Past designs have been recognised as a significant source of knowledge in architectural design. IT offers the opportunity to represent these designs not only by text, graphics and images, but also by 3D-models, computer animation, sound and video. In spite of the growing availability of multimedia archives, libraries and case bases, their contribution to the development of students design craftsmanship so far seems to be limited. If IT wants to make a valuable contribution to this development, the challenge is not to passively provide students with information on past designs, but to (inter)actively support the dynamic interplay between these designs and the student's design process. We are developing a tool that fundamentally attempts to explore this potential by using information as a vehicle to initiate, nurture and improve this interplay. The tool, which is intended to assist (student-)architects during the early conceptual stage of design, is conceived as a an (inter)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops its users? knowledge. We have implemented a working prototype of the tool, at first stage for the design studio, yet with the potential of expansion into the office setting.  
Mortola, E, A. Giangrande, P Mirabelli, and A Fortuzzi. "Introducing Hypermedia Tools in Community Planning and Design ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 172-177. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. IT in Europe tends to become a passive reflection of American commercial interests instead of a mean of the production of European culture and society. A change of paradigm is needed from the passive, what we “can” do, towards the active way, what we want to do, deciding what is good and bad, to give an answer to needs and wishes of the society we are building. In the late years the research and teaching activity of CAAD Laboratory at DiPSA concentrate on sustainable planning, community planning and interactive design, developing computer based tools aimed at aiding the process and improving its effectiveness. The research work has been going on rapidly and successfully (some CDs and web sites were edited) but coming at real-life application we faced completely different problems and needed a completely different approach. We were not free anymore to run with “advanced” technology following a vision of the future thus avoiding any form of verification, but we found ourselves obliged to evaluate the present utility of the technology used. This caused a dramatic shift of focus from the technology itself to people who could take advantage of it and the target to reach. In other words working not to create gaps between people who can buy the latest equipment and knows how to use it and people who cannot. Our intention was to increase social participation not reduce it, by selecting people to be involved in building the environment. This meant not only lowering “technological le
Petrovic, Ivan. "IT as Design Enabling Technology ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 178-84. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. The purpose of this paper is to present a recent design offer for design and realisation of a sizable housing development. The computers were significantly involved in both, making the offer, and organisation of project design phase. The story illustrates some interesting relationships between IT and certain types of design problems. The paper presents how the offer was prepared, discuss whether the computers would be beneficial in getting the design tasks done, and finally, pose the question whether such design tasks could be achieved without the help of computers. The explicit design tasks and use of the computer tools make this case of “computerised craftsmenhip” appropriate for presentation in educational environments.  
Fasse, Isabelle. "La modélisation de projets architecturaux comme support d’analyse d’oeuvres architecturales." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 72-77. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.

A l'heure o l'ordinateur n'est pas seulement utilisé comme instrument de dessin mais de plus en plus mis contribution comme outil d'aide la conception, l'approche de l'informatique en Ecole d'Architecture demande une pédagogie adaptée aux disciplines enseignées qui va au del de l'apprentissage de l'utilisation du matériel et des logiciels. Le travail demandé en 4me année aux étudiants de l'école d'architecture de Marseille Luminy repose sur l'analyse d'un projet architectural pris dans l'oeuvre d'un architecte de leur choix. Cette analyse doit amener les étudiants proposer une méthode de travail basée sur les outils informatiques mis leur disposition qui les aide par la saisie et la représentation informatique du projet, formuler et évaluer les hypothses de conception qui ont menées la réalisation du projet étudié. Cette approche basée sur l'analyse du projet ouvre la perspective de l'utilisation de l'outil informatique dans les étapes de l'analyse, de la conception et de la communication d'un projet.

Porada, Sabine. "Laboratoir de l'imaginaire ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 185-195. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.
Léglise, Michel. "Ordinateurs dans l'apprentissage de la conception: mental et instrumental ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 138-145. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. Il n'est pas inéluctable d'utiliser, dans les écoles d'architecture et pour l'apprentissage de la conception, les outils logiciels qu'exploitent les architectes en phase de production. On exposera en quoi ces systmes lourds et efficaces dans la fabrication des pices écrites et graphiques en fin de projet, se révlent inadaptés en phase d'apprentissage et de pré-conception. L'alternative ici proposée consiste  considérer un étudiant comme un acteur qui décide, dans un environnement multiple et changeant de modules logiciels, d'appeler tel ou tel élément propre  stimuler son imagination ou aider sa réflexion, dans la phase oi¹ il se trouve, dans le mode de représentation qu'il choisit. Cet environnement est considéré comme un dispositif. Quelques exemples existants de ces modules logiciels sont brivement présentés, comme incitation  continuer d'explorer cette voie. La conclusion expose la difficulté de l'entreprise, mais insiste sur les enjeux qui y sont attachés.  
Kokosalakis, Jen. "Remote File Sharing for Community-led Local Agenda 21 Sustainability with Internet, Intranets and VideoConferencing ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 116-122. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper considers new opportunities for ease of remote file sharing through the Internet, Intranets and VideoConferencing, as facilitating opportunities for informed consumer intervention and greater accountability of the design. A remote file sharing experiment, [through a VideoConference link], of a 3D CAD estate model, collaboratively developed with a local resident?s association, is discussed. A different example looks at use of the Internet route by a small practice in the North West, developing QuickTime and QuickTimeVirtual Reality files for remote distribution and collaboration. The value of the full building object-orientated, data based model, [incorporating all related data and decisions from conception, client participation, project and facilities and life time management], is seen to offer an excellent vehicle for illustrating, negotiating and recording decisions. New international CAD standards for remote transfer and file sharing bring ease of use into the arena. Associated peripherals for remote file sharing through both Internet and video/teleconferencing, point to a transformation in the way we collaborate in the future. Signs from a broad band of businesses indicate that there is a clear understanding [in some circles] of the potential and the specific orientation of Web targeting, people-networking and dialogue. The key change is that those who understand this, build on the particular opportunity to contact and relate with any community of interest and to develop dialogue in a deeper, closer manner. So, we can see a strange phenomenon that the remoteness can actually bring a closeness of a new kind, as communities explore common interests. The paper considers how this may be the key to involving thousands of residents in a well-recorded dialogue, so bringing improved opportunities for meeting European standards in public accountability and community involvement in the development of Local Agenda 21 sustainability strategies. 
Roberts, Andrew. "Teaching of Transferable Skills in Architectural Education. the Quartet Project." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 218-223. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. The quartet project is a four-week programme undertaken by all first year B.Sc Architecture students at the Welsh School of Architecture. It takes place early in the first semester and is designed to encourage students to develop a series of transferable skills. The cohort is divided into four groups, and the groups rotate around four different activities on a weekly basis. One of these activities is CAD/IT and aims to equip students with the necessary understanding of the potential and limitations of using computers as part of their studies, with emphasis on the creative use of the technology. Throughout the week links with the other three activities are heavily stressed and students use computers within all four activities to some extent. Using examples of students'work from the past two years, this paper aims to assess the CAD/IT element of the project, and how it connects with the other activities. It then looks at how the skills developed during the week are utilised by the students during the remainder of their time in the school.
Clayssen, Dominique, and Mikhael Porada. "Technologies de l'information et espace urbain ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 31-37. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.
Sariyildiz, Sevil, and S. Ozsariyildiz. "The Future of Architectural Design Practice within ICT Development ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 228-233. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. Design in general is analyzed and the use of ICT tools in architectural design practice in the design process explained. The place of the designer in the history and the future of the designer within the ongoing development of the ICT overviewed. The influence of the new technologies on the design and its process therefore the impact on ICT use in the practice clarified. The future perspectives of an architect as a profession and the place of the architect in the whole design process speculated. Architect as designer, as a product and process architect mentioned. Finally the influence of these changes on the architectural education reflected.  
McIntosh, Patricia. "The Internet as Communication Medium and Online Laboratory for Architecture Research." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 151-157. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.

This case study documents the experiences of two courses recently conducted on the Internet. The courses are a sequence of core methods courses offered to post-professional degree architecture students studying in a Computer Aided Design concentration in a Master of Science program. In these courses the students use the Internet as a communication medium and as a research tool using the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML). The VRML interface in the Web browser serves as an online laboratory and presents new opportunities for communication and for studying distributed computing in a multimedia and multidimensional environment.

Monedero, Javier. "The Role of the Architect in the Age of Automatic Reproduction ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 158-163. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper is a general reflection on the relationship between computer architectural education and professional practice or, in other words, the social role of architects. This reflection is grounded on the experience of the author as director of a Master program on computerized architectural projects and as professor of two general school courses: one consisting on a theoretical review of computer applications in architecture, the other consisting on a practical development of modelling and visualization techniques. The main argument is that little attention is being given in recent publications and CAAD conferences to the actual role of architect in society and that a big gap is growing between what is currently taught in architectural schools and what happens in real life. This gap has as one pole what is loosely called the “star systemi of famous architects that create singular buildings and that constitute the main reference of our architectural culture and, as another pole, the rigid laws of the market that dictate the types of most residential buildings. This lack of attention manifests itself in the unbalanced weight of papers on multimedia, historical modelling or visualization techniques and papers on housing or architectural current elements analysis. Some very interesting lines of research, perhaps distorted due to an insufficient analysis of the general notion of type in architecture, have been abandoned without much comment. The conclusion is that a discussion on this line would perhaps help to define better the distance between computer craftsmanship and architectural education.
Johnson, Scott. "Toward Making the Language of CAAD Match the Language of Architecture: a ProteanElements Approach ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 93-100. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. Both in education and in practice, architecture is experiencing a division between designers and “CAD specialists.” One reason for the division may be the inherent division between design concepts and CAD concepts. In a very real sense, computer use and design utilize different languages. Becoming an expert in the “craft” of CAD means having to learn to recognize and manipulate a different set of conceptual elements than is used in design. The set of concepts we use affects our thought and behaviour incredibly deeply, and translation from one set of concepts to another has significant cognitive cost. This paper discusses the mismatch between architectural and CAD concepts, and proposes protean elements as a solution to the problem. Protean elements are CAD system elements which correspond to architectural elements and have attributes appropriate for the elements they represent. They can be gradually refined in a top-down manner, without demands for certain pieces of missing data, or requirements for “correctness.i The goal is to help CAD systems come closer to speaking the same language as architects. A test implementation of a system based on protean elements is currently underway, and aspects of this implementation are discussed.  
Maver, Thomas W., and Jelena Petric. "Unanswered Questions Posed by the Devil's Advocate." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 146-150. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper poses a large number of questions and provides a small number of answers. It is an attempt to stimulate debate on what the author sees as the critical issues facing the CAAD community 30 years on from the origins of the discipline.  
De Vecchi, Antonio, and Laura Navarra. "Verification of Building Assemblage Compatability." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 234-238. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998.

A computer program is being elaborated as an aid in designing assembled parts whose assembly presents high degrees of complexity. The newly created program, once incorporated in the CAD sector to increase its potential applications, will facilitate the analysis of reciprocal relationhips between pieces of the assemblage, this will enhance optimum decision-making in terms of geometric and functional characteristics with respect to the previously conceived assembly sequence. The program will automatically create images in three different ways: instantaneous images of assembly stages for each piece of the assembled part, exploded axonometric view of the whole structure with indications of necessary procedures for inserting or connecting the assembled part,sequenced procedures for connecting the assembled part. The different methods of visualization listed above will allow for project verification of the part by means of simultaneous visual analysis of the images and rapid updating should any changes in their properties arise. These types of visualization include simulations of piece by piece assemblage, which will facilitate an “optimal assemblage”, meaning a set of components which are assembled in a specific sequence according to their “structural compatibility” and taking into consideration “particular assembly requirements”.

Kolarevic, Branko, Gerhard Schmitt, Urs Hirschberg, and D Kurmann. "Virtual Design Studio: Multiplying Time." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 123-130. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. This paper describes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions-University of Hong Kong, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, and University of Washington in Seattle-whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents and in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, tried to “multiply time”. Students were asked to design a house for a Chinese painter and a Swiss writer on a small island in Puget Sound near Seattle. In a short and intensive design charrette, students explored in five different phases various dualities associated with the given design problem. In each phase students were asked to select someone else?s design, thus implicitly forming design teams. The paper describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting design processes, and the lessons learned.  
Dodge, Richard. "What a Difference a Tool Makes:The Evolution of a Computer Design Studio ." In Computer Craftsmanship in Architectural Education: 16th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Paris, France: Ecole d’Architecture de Paris Val de Marne, 1998. What a Difference a Tool Makes: discoveries made during the evolution of the  Advanced  Design Studio (a.k.a.'working drawings') at the University of Texas at Austin since the time this core course was switched to computers, when student design teams were provided with computers and required to use them for design and presentation.  Covers the period from the course?s inception in 1991 to the present, during which the course has been under the continuing aegis of Professor Richard Dodge, who has taught design since 1967. Contrapuntal presentation by Professor Dodge and co-instructor and former student Marla Smith: what was done, what worked, and what went wrong.  Discusses students, faculty, hardware, software, design problems assigned, and the most educational computer-related catastrophes.