Keywords Abstract
Verbeke, Johan, J. Verleye, and K. Nys. "A Database System for Social Housing Management." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. During the eighties the Institute made an extensive inventory of the social housing in the region of Brussels, Belgium. Different information like architectural quality, urban context, social background of the inhabitants, demographic situation of the quarter, technical situation of the building, and so on. were registered in a paper-based publication. Text and photos were all published in a classical way and made available for the different decision makers. As the inventory was published on paper, it is almost impossible to make fast simulations out of the data available. 
Ribeiro, C.T.. "A Dynamic Display of the Work Breakdown in Civil Engineering Projects." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Displaying the progress of projects has been achieved by the use of planning outputs. Planning software, namely the well known WinProject&trade, Time Line&trade, or Primavera&trade,, allow chart displays, generally in the form of bar charts, logic diagrams and schedule reports to show it. The aim of linking Planning and CAD systems is to display in real-time the progress of engineering projects, according its planning and control through their 2D or 3D architectural and engineering models. This paper describes and illustrates, the development of an innovative software, that, in this way, links data from any Planning software to the popular AutoCAD producing colored 2D or 3D models of the multiple activities of an engineering project according the foreseen or real stages - not yet done, being done, completely done.   Same application examples to different engineering projects through some screen-shots of this software use, are illustrated.   
Maver, Thomas W.. "A Number is Worth a Thousand Pictures." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The CAAD community is lucky indeed to be involved in a field of teaching  and learning which is evolving so fast, which contributes so much to the  theory and practice of that most complex and interesting human activity - design, and which clearly excites such a high level of interest and  commitment from our students. There is much upon which the CAAD community can congratulate itself, each year the proceedings of E C A A D E, A C A D I A, C A A D Futures and now C A A D R I A expose an increasingly rich diversity of applications of the information technologies to architectural education. The purpose of this paper, however, is to highlight the relative paucity of applications which lie at the very centre of design education - i.e. the “cause and effecti of how design decisions impact upon the quality of the building.
Costanzo, E., A. De Vecchi, C. Di Miceli, and V. Giacchino. "A Software for Automatically Verifying Compatibility in Complicated Building Assemblies." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The research we are carrying on is intended to develop a tool aiding to design building mechanical assembly systems, which are often characterised by high complexity levels. In fact, when designing complicated building assemblies by making use of common graphical representations, it might be impossible for the operator to choose the proper shape and installation sequence of components so that they do not interfere during the assembly, and to check, in the meantime, the most favorable setting up modalities according to execution problems. Our software, running within CAD, by starting from the definition of the node features, will allow the operator to automatically get three types of representation that can simulate the assembly according to the assigned installation sequence: - instant images of the phases for setting up each component into the node, - 3D views showing the position of each component disassembled from the node and indicating the movements required for connection, - the components moving while the node is being constructed. All the representations can be updated step by step each time modifications to the node are made. Through this digital iterative design process - that takes advantage of various simultaneous and realistic prefigurations - the shape and function compatibility between the elements during the assembling can be verified. Furthermore, the software can quickly check whether any change and integration to the node is efficacious, rising the approximation levels in the design phase. At the moment we have developed the part of the tool that simulates the assembly by moving the components into the nodes according to the installation sequence.
QaQish, Ra'Ed, and R. Hanna. "A World-wide Questionnaire Survey on the Use of Computers in Architectural Education." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The paper reports on a study which examines the impact on architectural education needs arising from the changes brought about by the implications of CAD teaching/learning (CAI/CAL). The findings reflect the views of fifty-one (51) architecture schools through a world-wide questionnaire survey conducted in mid 1996. The survey was structured to cover four continents represented by seven countries, namely the USA, UK, Israel, Australia, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands. Structurally the main findings of this study are summarised under five areas, namely: 1) General Information, 2) Program of Study (curriculum) and CAD course, 3) CAD Laboratories: Hardware, Software, 4) Departmental Current and Future Policies, 5) Multi-media and Virtual Reality. Principally, there were three main objectives for using the computers survey. Firstly, to accommodate a prevalent comprehension of CAD integration into the curriculum of architecture schools world wide. Secondly, to identify the main key factors that control the extent of association between CAD and architectural curriculum. Thirdly, to identify common trends of CAD teaching in Architecture schools world-wide and across the seven countries to establish whether there are any association between them. Several variables and factors that were found to have an impact on AE were examined, namely: the response rate, the conventional methods users and the CAD methods users amongst students, CAD course employment in the curriculum, age of CAD employment, the role of CAD in the curriculum, CAD training time in the Curriculum, CAD laboratories/Hardware & Software, computing staff and technicians, department policies, Multi-Media (MM) and Virtual-Reality (VR). The statistical analysis of the study revealed significant findings, one of which indicates that 35% of the total population of students at the surveyed architecture schools are reported as being CAD users. Out of the 51 architecture schools who participated in this survey, 47 have introduced CAD courses into the curriculum. The impact of CAD on the curriculum was noted to be significant in several areas, namely: architectural design, architectural presentation, structural engineering, facilities management, thesis project and urban design. The top five CAD packages found to be most highly used across universities were, namely, AutoCAD (46), 3DStudio (34), Microstation (23), Form Z (17), ArchiCAD (17). The findings of this study suggest some effective and efficient future directions in adopting some form of effective CAD strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio and the curriculum.    
Gero, John S., and Mary Lou Maher. "A Framework for Research in Design Computing." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Design computing has often been considered a subset of computer applications that assist the designer in documenting and analysing complex designs. As one of many areas in which computer applications have beeen developed, design computing has relied on software developers and vendors to implement and market software with the relevant features and utilities to support some aspects of design activity. In this paper we consider design computing as a research area, one in which the results of the research lead to more than additional computer programs and in fact lead to a better understanding of designing and computer support for designing. 
Klercker, Af. "A National Strategy for CAAD and IT-Implementation in the Construction Industry the Construction Industry." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for implementation of CAD and IT in the construction and building management#1 industry in Sweden. The interest is in how to make the best use of the limited resources in a small country or region, cooperating internationally and at the same time avoiding to be totally dominated by the great international actors in the market of information technology. In Sweden representatives from the construction and building management industry have put forward a research and development program called: “IT-Bygg#2 2002 - Implementation”. It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry.  The presented strategy is based on a seminar with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analyzed and put together afterwards. The proposal in brief is that object oriented distributed CAD is to be used in the long perspective. It will need to be based on international standards such as STEP and it will take at least another 5 years to get established. Meanwhile something temporary has to be used. Pragmatically a “de facto standard” on formats has to be accepted and implemented. To support new users of IT all software in use in the country will be analyzed, described and published for a national platform for IT-communication within the construction industry.  Finally the question is discussed “How can architect schools then contribute to IT being implemented within the housing sector at a regional or national level?” Some ideas are presented: Creating the good example, better support for the customer, sharing the holistic concept of the project with all actors, taking part in an integrated education process and international collaboration like AVOCAAD and ECAADE.   
Yeung, Chris. "A Web-Based VRML Collaborative Design Tool for Architecture Studies." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper describes a system designed to help architecture students in designing three-dimensional objects in a collaborative way. When implementing this system, VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language), Java and Javascript are used. This system uses the World Wide Web, which is getting more and more popular in recent years, as the media to transfer information all over the world. The system allows many users to view three-dimensional objects, change attributes of the objects, discuss and design at the same time. These users can be located in different parts of the world. Each only needs a computer that is connected to the Internet and a web browser that can display VRML objects to use the system. The computer can be any hardware platform running any Operating System. The objective of this project is to develop a system that can run on any computer hardware and software platform. Without any limitation on hardware and software platform, people from different parts of the world can work collaboratively to design architectural objects.   
Carrara, G., A. Fioravanti, and G. Novembri. "An Intelligent Assistant for the Architectural Design Studio." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. It seems by now fairly accepted by many researchers in the field of the Computer Aided Design that the way to realise support tools for the architectural design is by means of the realisation of Intelligent Assistants. This kind of computer program, based on the Knowledge Engineering and machine learning, finds his power and effectiveness by the Knowledge Base on which it is based.  Moreover, it appears evident that the modalities of dialogue among architects and operators in the field of building industry, are inadequate to support the exchange of information that the use of these tools requires.  In fact, many efforts at international level are in progress to define tools in order to make easier the multiple exchange of information in different fields of building design. Concerning this point, protocol and ontology of structured information interchanges constitute the first steps in this sense, e.g. those under standardisation by ISO (STEP), PDT models and Esprit project ToCEE. To model these problems it has brought forth a new research field: the collaborative design one, an evolution of distributed work and concurrent design. The CAAD Laboratory of Dipartimento di Architettura and Urbanistica per l'Ingegneria has carried out a software prototype, KAAD, based on Knowledge Engineering in the fields of hospital building and of building for aged people. This software is composed by an Interface, a Knowledge Base, a Database and Constraints. The Knowledge Base has been codified by using the formal structure of frames, and has been implemented by the Lisp language. All the elements of KB are objects
Redondo, E.. "Analysis and Interpretation in the Architectonics." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The graphic intention is a peculiarity of the architectural drawing. It is enough to compare the ground plan of an unifamiliar housing insulated of Le Corbusier with another of Mies van der Rohe to realise the diversity of graphic styles, but is important to take conscience of the complexity that carries to interpret the symbols that appear in those documents, because as architects we either realize plans that the instructions are described or measures to be able to execute the work and in other occations representations for his edition aimed to a especialized public.  For this reason, and because not always is arranged the best possible documentation, we consider that the majority of vectorisations they exist in the market donit plenty satisfied our needs as teaching staff of graphic expression and CAD, althoug we can always be using the same systems of projection or codified representations, it is imposed a lot of times to interpret acording the context the different signs and graphic registers used.  We know experimental applications that go beyond, they even arrive to generate a 3D model from a lifted hand draw that represents three orthogonal projections of it, but it isnit less certain that its utility is restricted to fields very specialised and the option that we propose, there is not knowledge at least to us that it exist, commercially speaking. Our porpose has been to develope a symple metedology of vectorisation but adapted to the special idiosyncrasy of the needs of an architecture student that with frequency for his formation requires to generate with CAD models 2D and 3D of architectural projects from the information contented in magazines, and with them create several formas analysis. The most important difference in the matter to other systems is the interactivity of the procedure that let personify the exit file, even the wide diversity of graphic registers that it exist in the entrance, being the user only once has to identify and interpret the signs to detect, and then the process is realized automatically to any plant of the building or equivalent projection.
Szovenyi-Lux, Miklos. "Archicad for Teamwork - a New Concept in CAD Teamworking." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Architects are often obliged to use CAD and even to show a 3D CAD model of their design (that most CAD programs are capable of doing now) and most people are mislead by such slogans as the 3D is the most important part of a design although its just like drafting from other tricky viewpoints. We all know that a building is far more complex than the a bundle of sections, elevations and perspective views. It's a model of space where all building construction parts and other effects (even time, sunshine), that create and help to communicate this space have very complex cross references with each other. If we want to describe it with a program we have to create a digital building, and architects have to communicate this digital building towards each other in the design phase, if more than one architect or engineer is working on the building simultaneously.
Burry, Mark, and Zolna Murray. "Architectural Design Based on Parametric Variation and Associative Geometry." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper considers the role of the  computer for detailed design within the wider architectural design process. The central proposition is that parametric modelling software is invaluable for both preliminary and developed design where there is a need for the definition, manipulation and visualisation of complex geometry. The paper begins with a definition of'parametric design'followed by a consideration of its potential to assist or hinder the designer. A worked example will demonstrate how the elements that make up a model can be referenced toeach other using a number of clearly defined  constraints, the completed model being changed, modified and regenerated while conforming to preset conditions. This will be followed by a report on research into the implications of parametric design modelling applied retrospectively to Ji¸rn Utzon's documented design process for the Sydney Opera House. The study analyses how conventional modelling coped with the manipulation of these forms and compares this with the potential of computer-aided iterative design refinement.
Clayden, A., and Peter Szalapaj. "Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.  Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.  The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.  Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model. The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.
Verbeke, Johan, and Tom Provoost. "Are Computers, in an Design Office, Used in a Creative Way?" In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The Leonardo da Vinci project AVOCAAD-stage (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design Stage, with the help of the European Commission) is a placement programm which enables young architects to gain practical experience in the use of computers in design offices, especially during the early phases of the design process. Experiments and the creative use of new possibilities offered by computers are encouraged. Through placements, discussions and experimentation the project gains valuable information on the possibilities of computers during the design process.  As a result of these placements we will obtain reports from people in several design offices. We will first give an overview of the main experiences. The authors will then formulate the main results and discuss the possibilities offered by computers for collaboration, what the implications of 3D Modelling are and what the implications can be for the design process.  Topics and ideas will be illustrated with presentations of design work.
Silva, Neander. "Artificial Intelligence and 3D Modelling Exploration: an Integrated Digital Design Studio." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper describes a CAAD teaching strategy in which some Artificial Intelligence techniques are integrated with 3D modelling exploration. The main objective is to lead the students towards “repertoire” acquisition and creative exploration of design alternatives. This strategy is based on dialogue emulation, graphic precedent libraries, and 3D modelling as a medium of design study. The course syllabus is developed in two parts: a first stage in which the students interact with an intelligent interface that emulates a dialogue. This interface produces advice composed of either precedents or possible new solutions. Textual descriptions of precedents are coupled with graphical illustrations and textual descriptions of possible new solutions are coupled with sets of 3D components. The second and final stage of the course is based on 3D modelling, not simply as a means of presentation, but as a design study medium. The students are then encouraged to get the systemis output from the first stage of the course and explore it graphically. This is done through an environment in which modelling in 3D is straightforward allowing the focus to be placed on design exploration rather than simply on design presentation. The students go back to the first stage for further advice depending on the results achieved in the second stage. This cycle is repeated until the design solution receives a satisfactory assessment.
Martelli, T.. "Automatic Procedure for the Dimensioning and Arrangement of Space Units of an Architectural Organism." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The application of a Mathematical Programming (M.P.) technique, typical of Operational Research (O. R.), is proposed as a means to cope with the decisional problem of layout dimensioning and arrangement. Within the ambit of O.R., Mathematical Programming. deals with decisional problems of simplest structure: only one decision factor, only one preference function, complete (deterministic) knowledge of the environment in which one operates. Such a problem, in standard form, presents an objective function Z=f(x), of n variables x, to be minimized and a system of linear equations and/or inequalities, on the same variables, which represent the constraints and which define an admissible area for the solution.  The architectural organism is modelled as an assembly of parallelepiped shaped space entities or units, provided with a certain number of “holesi that permit functional corresponding connection. The pursued intent being optimal assembly. The model, in its mathematical form, fits a standard Non-Linear M.P. (N.L.P.) problem, since the objective function Z is non-linear and the constraints are represented by inequalities. In its graphic form it reproduces an image of all the space units constituting the organism, moreover it is able to represent these units, in their logical and physical individuality, and their mutual relationship, as well as the ones with the external environment.
Oxman, Rivka. "Behind the Image: Representing Design Concepts." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. In this paper we report on research in which the Internet is considered an environment for the storage and retrieval of design knowledge. The nature of the net as a medium for the representation, storage and accessing of design knowledge is reviewed and the attributes of the medium are analyzed. We elaborate on the appropriateness of certain attributes of the technology as providing means for representing not only the physical representations of design, but also their conceptual content. Furthermore the research demonstrates that the embedding of design conceptual content in web-based representations provides a powerful advantage for strengthening and expediting the processes of search and retrieval in design knowledge bases.
Bradford, John, W.S. Wong, and H.F. Tang. "Bridging Virtual Reality to Internet for Architecture." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper presents a virtual reality interface tool which allows a user to perform the following action: 1.Import design from other CAD tools. 2.Assemble an architecture structure from a library of pre-built blocks and geometry primitives dynamically created by user. 3.Export the design interactively in VRML format back to the library for Internet browsing. The geometry primitives include polygon, sphere, cone, cylinder and cube. The pre-built blocks consist of fundamental architecture models which have been categorized with architectural related style, physical properties and environmental attributes. Upon a useris request, the tool or the composer, has the ability to communicate with the library which indeed is a back-end distributed client-server database engine. The user may specify any combination of properties and attributes in the composer which will instantly bring up all matching 3-dimensional objects through the database engine. The database is designed in relational model and comes from the work of another research group.
Bridges, Alan. "Building Systems Integration and the Implications for CAD Education." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997.

The author has been a member of two important U.K. reviews of construction computing (references [1] and [2]). The paper draws on these reports, other U.K. Government Reports and theoretical work on collaborative design undertaken at the University of Strathclyde to present an evaluation of Information Technology use in practice and its implications for education.

Kvan, Thomas. "But is it Collaboration? ." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Collaborative activities are an important application of computer technology now that telecommunications infrastructure has been established to support it. There are many students in schools of architecture who are undertaking collaborative projects using the Internet and many practices who work together exchanging files and interacting on shared digital models. Software vendors are developing tools to support such collaboration. But what are we doing? What is the nature of collaboration and what are the implications for tools that support this work? 
Sanchez, Santiago, Alberto Zulueta, and Javier Barrallo. "CAAD and Historical Buildings: the Importance of the Simulation of the Historical Process ." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The majority of the problems that CAAD deals with are located in contemporary buildings. But many other buildings of the historical heritage also need special attentions with their computer design prior to the restoration projects. Generally, in restoration work, hand drawing and artistic criteria have been more usual than work with precision topographic data and accurate technical plans. But a very rigorous design is not always enough to start restoration work. The real state that presents a historical building could have been modified substantially from its original state due to previous interventions, wars, seismic movements, erosion, biological aggressions or any other historical event. So, it is necessary to join CAAD tasks with a simulation of the historical process suffered by the building. Historical data and ancient cartography must be the basis of all the CAAD works, and the quality of the computer 3D model can be established comparing it with the original available maps. This paper explains the CAAD works and the intervention proposals for the restoration of the City Walls of Hondarribia, a small Spanish village placed in the frontier between Spain and France. These Renaissance bastioned walls were partially destroyed throughout many wars with France. The exact knowledge of their original trace and dimensions only is possible comparing the real CAD models with the plans that exist in the Spanish Military Archives since the XVIth. century. The digital store and index of all the historical information, their comparison with real photographs of the city walls, the creation of photo realistic images with the intervention proposals, and the influence of the structural repairs in the final project will be explained in the CAAD context.
Kosco, Igor. "CAAD and Network Technologies - Reflexions from Education and Practice." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. New technologies like Computer Aided Design and network facilities are affecting the building procurement, design and construction processes very rapidly. Network technologies are giving us a variety of possibilities: quick and simple access to information, quick and easy communication, exchange of datas in different formats ( texts, data, drawings, images, animations, hypertext or multimedia products, etc.) or access to differently located computer and work on it. As the result the communication or collaboration in a design and construction process and management could be used not only at the Level 1. (in one office), Level 2. (between different offices) or Level 3. (different participants and users) but, what is more important, between geographically dispersed members of design and construction teams (dispersed offices or communities in different places, towns, regions, countries or even continents). There are a lot of advantages: quick and easy communication and exchange of information, free choice of a team, easy revisions of a documentation, collaborative work on the same drawings, costs savings in travelling, issuing, copying and shipping of a documentation and finally possible use of the cheaper labour or more skilled professionals in a different region or country.
Wood, J.B., and T. Chambers. "CAAD as a Dialogic Tool: a Report on an Environmental Project at St Francis Primary School, Gorbals." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The paper describes how CAAD (in particular 3D modelling) can be used as a dialogic tool within a community context. It demonstrates the creative potential of visual presentation techniques as part of an environmental project that engaged people of different ages and experience involved in the urban regeneration process.
Grant, Mike. "Collaborative Research in Education for Designers Using IT (Credit)." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper seeks to report on the structure, methodology and outcomes of a series of ongoing experiments between two of the Scottish Schools of Architecture. The experiments are directed at establishing the best use of video conferencing as a means of sharing resources through collaboration in design teaching.
Martens, Bob, and Wolfgang Dokonal. "Collaborative Teamwork GRAWI '97: the Third Attempt to "Internet-Design" ." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The abbreviation GraWi is made up of the combination of first letters of the Austrian university sites of GRAz and WIen (Vienna) and stands for the follow-up model of BraGraLuWi having involved also the universities of BRAtislava and LUton in 1996. A joint project-design had already been carried out in 1995 (BraGraLu). The present contribution is aimed at assessing the project.
Park, T., and V. Mirande. "Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Computer-Assisted Instruction Methods for Learning Architectural Concepts in Design Studio." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997.

In design studio, during the preliminary stage of a project, learning architectural concepts through the study of precedents is a common activity. A few computer-based tools for precedent study have been developed, however, most have focused on delivering information without considering aspects of learning concepts. Although the tools apply digital media, such as hypermedia and multimedia, their instructional method is limited to direct instruction for presentation of information. The design and development of the tools neglect the need of the study of concept learning, learners, and learning methods.

Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Computer - Tool vs. Medium." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. We have arrived an important juncture in the history of computing in our profession: This history is long enough to reveal clear trends in the use of computing, but not long to institutionalize them. As computers peremate every area of architecture - from design and construction documents to project administration and site supervision - can “virtual practicei be far behind? In the old days, there were basically two ways of architects working. Under stress. Or under lots more stress. Over time, someone forwarded the radical motion that the job could be easier, you could actually get more work done. Architects still have been looking for ways to produce more work in less time. They need a more productive work environment. The ideal environment would integrate man and machine (computer) in total harmony. As more and more architects and firms invest more and more time, money, and effort into particular ways of using computers, these practices will become resistant to change. Now is the time to decide if computing is developing the way we think it should. Enabled and vastly accelerated by technology, and driven by imperatives for cost efficiency, flexibility, and responsiveness, work in the design sector is changing in every respect. It is stands to reason that architects must change too - on every level - not only by expanding the scope of their design concerns, but by altering design process. Very often we can read, that the recent new technologies, the availability of computers and software, imply that use of CAAD software in design office is growing enormously and computers really have changed the production of contract documents in architectural offices.
Petrovic, Ivan. "Computer Design Agents in a Brainstorming Session." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. We are exploring possibility of using computer design agents that can perform in a manner loosely resembling that of human designers, and conform their performance to the participants in a brainstorming session during a design process.
Ferrar, Steve. "Computers and the Creative Process." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. For many years I kept all my personal details, appointments and notes on a Psion Organiser. One day I started questioning the efficiency of this and my motivation for doing it. On analysis, (which I suppose I should have carried out before I bought it) I realised that, compared with a paper-based system, it took me longer to a) record information and b) retrieve it. But almost more importantly I realised that scanning information to build up a picture of say a particular week or month was not nearly as easy. As for annotating with a pencil or felt tipped pen......how I suddenly longed for the good old days and a paper-based system. I have now reverted to a Filofax, which even at the exorbitant price of • £22.50 was still a lot cheaper than a Psion.  It is a random access device, with a large permanent storage capacity, is expandable and in easy-to-access hardcopy format. It is infinitely flexible. There are no batteries to run down and I can still get into it if I forget the password!
Hanna, R., T. Barber, and Ra'Ed QaQish. "Computers as the Sole Design Tool: the Mackintosh Experiment." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper reports on the findings of an empirical investigation into the use of the computer as the only design media in solving a design problem. Several 1st and 2nd year students took part in a two week experiment on the use of a CAD programme, AutoCAD 13 and AEC 5.0, to design a studio for a graphic designer. Prior to the experiment an extensive literature search was carried out to explore the relationship between the design process, visual thinking, conventional sketching (interactive imagery) and Computer Aided Design. Out of this search a number of design variables were identified, developed and then tested through a series of observations and interviews with the students while they were engaged in the design of the Graphic Designeris Studio. Questionnaires were also administered to students to explore their views on issues including, using CAD instead of conventional tools, design areas where CAD is most effective, and how CAD can improve design skills.
Will, Barry, and Thomas Li. "Computers for Windows: Interactive Optimization Tools for Architects designing openings in walls (IOTA)." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Size, shape and disposition of windows in walls has long been an integral expression of style in architecture. As buildings have grown taller the relationships of the windows to the ground plane and to the surrounding environments have become more complex and difficult to predict. Traditionally architects have had to use their own knowledge, experience and feelings in the design of windows. There may be few, if any, scientific bases for their decisions. The difficulty in making good design decisions is compounded because many criteria for window design, such as daylight, sunlight, ventilation, sound, view and privacy have to be considered simultaneously. It is here that computers can help, on the one hand, by providing “expert knowledgei so that architects can consult the cumulative knowledge database before making a decision, whilst on the other hand, evaluations of the decisions taken can be compared with a given standard or with alternative solutions.  “Expert knowledge” provision has been made possible by the introduction of hypertext, the advancement of the world wide web and the development of large scale data-storage media. Much of the computeris value to the architects lies in its ability to assist in the evaluation of a range of performance criteria. Without the help of a computer, architects are faced with impossibly complex arrays of solutions. This paper illustrates an evaluation tool for two factors which are important to the window design. The two factors to be investigated in this paper are sunlighting and views out of windows. Sunlight is a quantitative factor that can theoretically be assessed by some mathematical formulae provided there is sufficient information for calculation but when total cumulative effects of insolation through the different seasons is required, in addition to yearly figures, a design in real-time evolution requires substantial computing power. Views out of windows are qualitative and subjective. They present difficulties in measurement by the use of conventional mathematical tools. These two fields of impact in window design are explored to demonstrate how computers can be used in assessing various options to produce optimal design solutions. This paper explains the methodologies, theories and principles underlying these evaluation tools. It also illustrates how an evaluation tool can be used as a design tool during the design process.
Ekholm, Anders, and Fridqvist Sverker. "Concepts of Space in Computer Based Product Modelling and Design." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The everyday understanding of space may be self-evident and unproblematic. However, as soon as we are asked for a formal definition, e.g. in the context of building classification or product modelling, the concept of space is subject of controversy and misunderstanding. To some, space is the emptiness in which things are embedded, i.e. something immaterial. To others, space has no separate existence but is a property of the material world. Still, according to both views, space can be experienced. In this paper we analyse some influential work within building classification and building product modelling and criticise these for applying a concept of space without factual reference. We explore the ontological foundations for the concept of space, and conclude that space is an aspect view on things, depending on the view, it may be seen both as a property of things and as a thing in itself. Finally we show how construction space can be represented as an object in a conceptual schema for computer based space information.
Park, Hoon. "Cyber Design Studio: Using Manual Media via Internet Connections for Collaborative Design." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This article explores how Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems can be applicable and integrated into the early stage of design. CAD systems are still technologies that are not broadly accepted as useful to the designer especially in this stage of design because CAD systems use the monitor and mouse which differ from the sketch paper and pen of manual media. This article discusses how manual media and Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) technologies - video conferencing, in my examples - that employ multimedia and Internet can empower designers by providing them with new ways of working together. For accommodating this approach, a prototype CAD system has been developed in which the system consists of a conventional drawing and extra capabilities. This system allows the designer to work with computer based and paper based tools in the same conventional environment as well as remote communications between the designers. This environment is used as the setting for a case study of design tutorials in the design studio. The analysis of this work provides interesting insight into the traditional roles of design studio as well as the relationship between digital and manual media. 
MacCallum, C., and R. Hanna. "DEFLECT: a Computer Aided Learning Package for Teaching Structural Design - Phase Two ." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper reports on Phase Two of a SHEFC funded project jointly carried out by the Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University of Paisley, the Mackintosh School of Architecture, and Lamp Software. The project aims to build a computer-assisted learning package on the response of structures to load. The software will be used as an interactive teaching tool for both architectural and engineering students. The package has four levels: Beginners (Level 1), Intermediate (Level 2) and Advanced (Levels 3 and 4). The first two levels have been completed after continuous feedback from both institutions. Level 1 is geared towards architectural and engineering students to help them understand structural behaviour of building components, such as deflection. Level 2 is a graphical editor that enables students to draw precisely the structure of their designs, investigate the deflection of structural members and identify areas of tension and compression. Levels 3 and 4 are a design tool which is aimed at architectural and civil engineering students where they can design and analyse realistic structures by choosing structural members from a library, and specify materials and multiple loads.  Phase One of DEFLECT was presented in the 14th ECAADE conference, which was held at the University of Lund, Sweden. In Phase Two, the range of structural examples was expanded to include typological classics. This was accompanied by additional teaching and learning material. The package was enlarged to include bending moment and shear force diagrams, tapered and curved members, and additional materials such as glass.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Digital Architectural Visualization." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The traditional emphasis of architectural education and practice on spatial visualization has contributed to the development of an overtly visual architectural culture which agrees with our predominantly visual interaction with the built environment. The democratization of computer technologies is changing architectural visualization in two significant ways. The first is that the availability of affordable, powerful digital versions of analogue visual media and of new, complementary techniques is facilitating the application of computer visualization in most aspects of the design and management of the built environment. The second is the opening of a wide and exciting new market for visualization in information systems, for example through interfaces that employ spatial metaphors, which arguably are extensions of the three dimensional structures the architect knows better than other design specialists of today. The transition from analogue to digital visualization poses questions that encompass the traditional investigation of relationships between geometric representations and built form, as well as issues such as a unified theory of architectural representation, the relationships between analysis and visualization and the role of abstraction in the structure of a representation. In addition to theoretical investigations, the utilization of new possibilities in architectural visualization requires technology and knowledge transfer from areas other than computer science. The integration of such transfers suggests flexible, modular approach which contradicts the holistic, integral principles of computer-aided architectural design. 
Rinner, Claus. "Discussing Plans via the World-Wide Web." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Collaborative teamwork often goes beyond same place - same time situations: new information technologies allow for distributed asynchronous cooperation. In urban planning procedures, the elaboration of a land-use or building plan may be considered as the common goal of all actors. But in general, the participants do have conflicting subgoals. Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), therefore, must include tools that allow for discussions in distributed workgroups. GMD's Zeno system aims at structuring such argumentation processes and at mediating between opposite interests.
Lee, E., S Woo, and Tsuyoshi Sasada. "Experimental Study in inter-University Collaboration collaboration." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The architectural design requires collaboration among various participants, such as architects, clients, engineers in the stages of the design process. The Sasada laboratory has been involved in the various collaborative architectural design projects. The authors found several important issues in the process of those projects. Firstly, the presentation data is composed of different kinds of data such as documents, computer generated still images, movies and 3D objects. The participants involved in those projects need to access these data as necessary. Secondly, it is virtually impossible for all participants to attend at the same time and place. Therefore, computer networked collaborative design work is essential, in particular, for an international project and for a complex architectural design project.
Donath, Dirk, and Frank Petzold. "From Digital Building Surveying to an Information System." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper describes the development of a software concept and a prototype system for a structured way of collecting and organising information about existing buildings. An analysis of traditional methods and processes involved in architectural surveying forms the basis for the development of a programming system for the structured surveying, preparation, organisation and use of digital information about existing architectural objects. Use is made throughout of current tools and techniques in the field of applied informatics, and these in turn are evaluated as to their suitability and usefulness. Particular emphasis is given to the systematic breakdown of a building into its component parts and information relevant to its use and planning, and to the integration of different methods of capture and presentation of this information. The architects'normal working methods inform the entire process.
Radford, Anthony. "Games and Learning about Form in Architecture." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The paper outlines metaphors of play and games in the use of digital media in architectural education as a means of developing student confidence and abilities in spatial modelling, design composition, and form creation.
Brown, Andre, P. Berridge, and D. Mackie. "Gaming as a Vehicle for Collaborative Designcollaborative design." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper outlines one approach to addressing the problem of participation in a properly understood process and goes on to show how the principles used are being reinforced by an interactive computer based application.
Fantacone, Enrico. "GIS as appropriate technology to developing Country: the Case Study of Bengo in Angola." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The uncertain conditions and limited resources are chronic characters in developing countries. The appropriateness of the GIS is on respecting and thinking these chronic conditions in setting up a methodology aiming to pursue the basic knowledge of territory to support decision making and planning actions on emergency condition as it happens in this case study localized on the District of Bengo in Angola.  
Colajanni, Benedetto, and Giuseppe Pellitteri. "Image Recognition: from Syntax to Semantics." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. n a previous paper the authors presented an analyser of simple architectural images. It works at syntactical level inasmuch as it is able to detect the elementary components of the images and to perform on them some analyses regarding their reciprocal position and their combinations.  Here we present a second step of development of the analyser: the implementation of some semantic capabilities. The most elementary level of semantics is the simple recognition of each object present in the architectural image. Which, in turn means attributing to each object the name of the class of similar objects to which the single object is supposed to pertain. While at the syntactical level the pertinence to a class implies the identity of an object to the class prototype, at the semantic level this is not compulsory. Pertaining to the same class, that is having the same architectural meaning, can be objects having approximately the same shape. Consequently in order to detect the pertinence of an object to a class, that is giving it an architectural meaning, two things are necessary: a date base containing the class prototypes to which the recognized objects are to be assigned and a tool able to “measurei the difference of two shapes.
Kokosalakis, J., G. Brown, and J. Moorhouse. "Incremental Reflective Learning and Innovative Practice in Electronic Design Media." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper discusses the impact of a continuously developing CAAD learning strategy, describing in detail a few of these principles, and considering their dynamic impact through deeper more lasting learning, feeding a substantial intensification in the application of Architectural Designing with Computers, changing design methods with interesting analytical and creative results.Aspects of the CAAD teaching discussed include extended collaboration between CAAD and design tutors in defining learning outcomes and tutoring the studentsi application of CAAD to design projects, inclusion of CAAD within traditional interim reviews and feedback for design projects and bringing emphasis on conceptual principles, structuring the model and simple programming into earlier stages of the teaching programme and a simple excursion into programming. Studio project examples indicate the interplay between teaching, learning and achievement. Some evidence is explored in greater detail. from the “Interstitial Layersi project utilising the appropriateness of CAAD to store and switch the visibility of spatial data in endless permutations and extensive combinations for mapping, analysing and strategically projecting patterns of city centre activities, fabric and space. Studentsi demonstrate a dynamic command of CAAD: as a vehicle for conceptual design, a device to analytically review, criticise and modify the design, as a means to explain design ideas to tutors and to develop and detail final building designs. Reciprocal valuing of quality CAAD achievement between architecture students and staff is seen to be contributing to involvement and motivation, reinforcing striving for equality of achievement. Reference to a further strand of the new methodology considers the impact of tutoring based in researcher findings from video case study precedents of architects practising creative design through use of computers, on a more open, effective development of the architecture studentsi own designing processes, culminating in interesting design work. 
Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga. "Information Structures in the Designing Process." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Nowadays we deal with a real revolution in the computer science. Present times explorers no longer look for information in vast library files but rather they surf on Internet. The technological progress in the realm of computer studies made “the fathers unable to keep pace with their children”. Thatis one of the reasons why it is so difficult to introduce new techniques into the routinized designing process. The problem is that some know “what” and the others “ow”. At the times when drawing pens were ousted by rapidographs, communication between different generations of designers was easier. Both of these tools are, in fact very similar. It is the other way with the new computer science technique, which consists of complicated systems not so easy to access because of various economical, emotional, routine and habitual reasons. Changes in the designing process go step by step, in a much slower pace than the progress in computer hardware and software. It is difficult to accept the fact in professional environment that computer technique can assist the designer as a medium.
Najafi, A.. "Integrated Computer-Aided Architectural and Structural De." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The decisions made at the early stages of design that generally take place in the architectural office have phenomenal effects on many aspects of building, including the structural form, the mechanical and electrical services, the construction planning, and the overall cost of the project. It is of prime importance that the effect of decisions which an architect makes in the initial stages of building design can be assessed, particularly vital is the influence of changes made in the spatial arrangement of building floors. The earlier in the design process these effects are studied, the better the later difficulties can be avoided.  A programme of research is in progress to provide a computer-aided learning tool for students of architecture so that they become familiar with the process of structural design, and examine the effects of the decisions they make at the initial stages of design on the structure of the building. It is also educative to observe how the architectural design of a building may be influenced by its structural arrangement. It is intended that the user acquire a general understanding of how steel structures behave.
Belibani, R., and A. Gadola. "On Digital Architecture." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. One of the main aims of this research was to highlight the influence of computer as a designing tool. Their wide acceptance as drawing tools might occult the importance of their role in architectural design. We will try to apprehend, with the help of synthetic images, that computers mark a historic step forward in drawing and representation, as well as a major progress in the understanding of creative processes. Together these features offer a broader horizon to architectural design. New source of inspiration can be found in virtual reality that makes visible what does not really exist, permitting design to suggest itself with its primordial image. We mean a kind of architectural imprint, where the first three-dimensional lines suggest in some way the designer with their shape, and encourage the definition process. Through the visualisation of some images, it is possible to show the modifications of language and style, to examine the ransformation modalities of the design process and to propose an essay of the new methods to communicate architecture.
Faconti, D., V Giacchin, and G. Pellitteri. "On-line Handbook to Support Brickwork Design." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Computer assistants to building design are more and more oriented to construct repertories of cases to be recalled as possible suggestions to a real design situation. For this purpose it is necessary that the cases be described by the parameters most apt to describe the design situations. In this way it will be possible to extract out of the repertory the existing case most akin to the design problem the designer is dealing with. This kind of help is the most fit to the usual behaviour of a designer which, in order to find the best solution to a design problem, resort to his culture, his knowledge of real cases, which he tries to adapt to the peculiar need of his present case. This paper presents an attempt to construct such a tool also if restricted to only one building component: the exterior brickwork. It is structured as an Hypertext, which allows a net of relationships much richer than the one of a conventional handbook.
Monedero, Javier. "Parametric Design. a Review and Some Experiences." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. During the last few years there has been an extraordinary development of computer aided tools intended to present or communicate the results of architectural projects. But there has not been a comparable progress in the development of tools intended to assist design to generate architectural forms in an easy and interactive way. Even worst, architects who use the powerful means provided by computers, as a direct tool to create architectural forms are still an exception. Architecture continues to be produced by traditional means using the computer as little more than a drafting tool.  The main reasons that may explain this situation can be identified rather easily, although there will be significant differences of opinion. Mine is that it is a mistake trying to advance too rapidly and, for instance, propose integrated design methods using expert systems and artificial intelligence resources when do not have still an adequate tool to generate and modify simple 3D models.  The modelling tools we have at the present moment are clearly unsatisfactory. Their principal limitation is the lack of appropriate instruments to modify interactively the model once it has been created. This is a fundamental aspect in any design activity, where the designer is constantly going forward and backwards, reelaborating once and again some particular aspect of the model, or its general layout, or even coming back to a previous solution that had been temporarily abandoned.
Wenz, Florian, and Urs Hirschberg. "Phase(x) - Memetic Engineering for ArchitectureArchitecture." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997.

Phase(x) was a successful teaching experiment we made in our entry level CAAD course in the Wintersemester 1996/97. The course was entirely organized by means of a central database that managed all the students'works through different learning phases. This setup allowed that the results of one phase and one author be taken as the starting point for the work in the next phase by a different author. As students could choose which model they wanted to work with, the whole of Phase(x) could be viewed as an organism where, as in a genetic system, only the “fittesti works survived. While some discussion of the technical set-up is necessary as a background, the main topics addressed in this paper will be the structuring in phases of the course, the experiences we had with collective authorship, and the observations we made about the memes hat developed and spread in the students'works. Finally we'll draw some conclusions in how far Phase(x) is relevant also in a larger context, that is not limited to teaching CAAD.

Schwarz, M., E Schmidinger, A. Voigt, and H.P. Walchhofer. "Reconstruction of "Capella Speciosa"." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The present contribution describes the further advancement of computer-assisted representation of architecture of art-historical research work by means of the reconstruction of the so-called “Capella Speciosa”.
Kolarevic, Branko. "Regulating Lines, Geometric Relations, and Shape Delineation in Design." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The paper presents a computer-based graphic environment for shape delineation that can provide a qualitatively different way to explore shape, dimension, and geometric organization in design. Relational description of shapes based on the concept of regulating lines is introduced as an explicit formulation of a strategy to form generation and creative discovery. The paper also presents ReDRAW, a limited prototype of the relations-based graphic system, and discusses some implications of its use in conceptual architectural design.
Hendricx, Ann. "Shape, Space and Building Element: Development of a Conceptual Object Model for the Design Process ." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The paper describes the first steps taken in the search for a central object model presenting all possible data, concepts and operations concerning the architectural design process.  From the early design stage, an architectural model can be built on computer.  A central object model of this process is essential: a model describing geometrical shapes, spaces, building elements and user activities, together with all the basic operations these entities can undertake.  The model could provide the necessary information for the performance of tests to assist the designer (energy calculation, stability check, costs...).  Appropriate interfaces between the object model and existing software packages allow different actors in the design process to make use of the modelis data.  First, the conceptual model for CAAD in the design process is described. The second part deals with the methodology used for developing the object model: M.E.R.O.DE (Model-driven Entity-Relationship Object-oriented Development) proves to be a firm base to start our design.  Finally, we present some aspects of the first prototype for such a central object model. 
Schijf, Rik. "Somewhere Between CAAD-past and -future. is this where practise is?" In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Computers are commonplace in architecture: as CAD for drawing production, special text databases for specification writing and software for construction budget calculation. Far less common is their application in the earlier stages of design. This article discusses the options available to the architect and facility planner. The bottomline is that there are many lowkeyed tools around that can serve any practice very weel.
Moore, R., and B. Antonini. "The Architectural Idea and the three dimensional Computer Model." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The presentation is part of an investigation engaged in the analysis of form in some master building or landmark of the modern age. This istitution is going to set up a file system available for students and the teachers. The VILLA SAVOYE of Le Corbusier, built in 1930 at Poissy, France, is one of the most important files in the system because it has an enormous amount of documents that explain the architectural context and meaning.
Kühn, E., M. Herzog, and C. Kühn. "The Implementation of a Distributed Hypermedia Archive for Architectural Design Precedents." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. In this paper we present the current state of an ESPRIT IV project the authors are involved in (VHF- A Virtual Hypermedia Factory, grant nr. 22251). The aim of the project is to develop methodologies and technologies for distributed hypermedia production and dissemination. The application scenario of the Austrian partners is the realisation of electronic documentation on Austrian architecture of the 20th century. The partners in the project are the Albertina, a collection of graphic arts that houses a special section for architectural drawings both contemporary and historic, and the Austrian Architectural Foundation, the umbrella organisation of the architectural centres which are established in nine different locations in Austria. The collection of information will be done in a distributed environment and made accessible to the different user groups through specially tailored interfaces. 
Scheurer, Fabian, and Christoph Lintl. "The Munich Project: an Online Information System on Architecture in Munich." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The starting point for the following considerations is a proposition that usually evokes immediate contradiction from architects - from students as well as from professionals
Haapasalo, Harri. "The Role of CAD in Creative Architectural Sketching." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The history of computers in architectural design is very short, only a few decades, when compared to the development of methods in practical design (Gero 1983). However, the development of the user interfaces has been very fast. According to the practical observations of over one hundred architects, user interfaces are at present inflexible in sketching, although computers can make drafts and the creation of alternatives quicker and more effective in the final stages of designing (Haapasalo 1997). Based on our research in the field of practical design we would wish to stimulate a wider debate about the theory of design. More profound perusal compels us to examine human modes, pre-eminently different levels of thinking and manners of inference. What is the meaning of subconscious and conscious thinking in design? What is the role of intuition in practical design? Do the computer aided design programs apply to creative architectural sketching? To answer such questions, distinct, profound and broad understanding from different disciplines is required. Even then, in spite of such specialist knowledge we cannot hope to unambiguously and definitively answer such questions.
Mortola, E, A. Giangrande, P Mirabelli, and A.Fortuzzi Fortuzzi. "The Self-sustainable Community Laboratories of Rome." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. The experience of the Laboratories is not new for Rome. In 1993 the Historical Heritage Office of the Municipality came to an agreement with the Dioguardi Co. to found the Laboratory of Ghetto - the ancient Jewish quarter - with the following objectives: to offer space and tools to analyse public and private proposals for buildings restoration, to collect, elaborate and diffuse data and information about the neighbourhood, to involve inhabitants and train some of them in renewal and restoration activities through the creation of a “pilot yard”. The data gathered in the Laboratory were elaborated and used to produce an hypertext which could be consulted by inhabitants. A section of this hypertext showed all the restoration projects, public and private ones (Sivo 1995).
Wrona, S., D. Miller, and J. Klos. "The Systematization of Information in the Computer Aided Architectural Design." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Since the CAD methods were invented, the systematization of information in CAD has been strongly connected to the computerization of architectis workshop. Nowadays, in 90., this systematization has to the great extent negative consequences. A designer understands the systematization of information through abilities and disabilities of the one, particular graphical aided documentation development system, which he deploys himself. The traditional method of design is clearly opposed to the computerized method. Data bases are seen by architects as a set of information describing particular and unique architectural project and some selected aspects correlated with narrow specialization of designer. Collaboration between participants of design process is still very challenging due to the usage of different tools and different systematization of information. It is necessary to define modern part of information in architectural design. The systematization of information should be a foundation for development of computer systems and not contrary, in this way it will be possible to overcome opposition between traditional and computerized techniques. Architectis workshop, from the point of view of the informational structure of ongoing information exchange processes, should in greater part relay on the experience of structural analysis used for development of information systems in business. Effective utilization of computer methods requires the extension of collaboration between all the participants of design process, search for active access to distributed data bases (i.e. Internet) and increase of methodological consciousness (the ability to form own design strategies, methods and structures) indispensable for development of modern CAD systems which wouldnit be limited to a computer graphics. 
Petric, Jelena. "Use of Multi-Media in the Design of a Community Media Centre." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper describes the innovative use of a range of multi-media information technologies: a) to analyse the economic, social, cultural and political factors which relate to the proposed site for a new Media Centre in a deprived area of Glasgow., b) to model the physical characteristics of the site and its vicinity, c) to explain to, and encourage participation of the community in the evaluation of design ideas for the Media Centre and thereby create a “media culture”
Carrara, G., G. Novembri, Anna Maria Zorgno, and P.L. Brusasco. "Virtual Studio of Design and Technology on Internet (I) - Educator's approach." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. This paper presents a teaching experience involving students and professors from various universities, in Italy and abroad, which began in 1996 and is still on going. The Virtual Studios on the Internet (VSI) have some features in common with the Teaching Studios planned for the new programme of the faculties of Architecture in Italian universities. These are the definition of a common design theme, and the participation of disciplinary teachers. The greatest difference is in the modes of collaboration, which is achieved through information and communication technologies. The chief result of this is that the various work groups in different places can work and collaborate at the same time: the computer networks provide the means to express, communicate and share the design project.
Emprin, G., E. Girotto, A. Gotta, T. Livi, and M.Priore Luigia. "Virtual Studio of Design and Technology on Internet (II): Student's experience." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. For about a year the members of our group have been working on their degree thesis focused on the project of the new intermodal node of Porta Susa in Turin. The theses are concerned with complex urban and architectural problems in the light of the innovations brought by computers and networks. The experience, up to now, makes us conscious that telematics is, and will be, more and more able to offer new tools and different methodologies to approach architectural design. Collaboration across computer networks has improved our design experience with systematic contributions from various skills and methodologies.  The presentation of our still on-going didactic experience has been subdivided into phases, strictly interrelated The first one, almost over, is concerned with the analysis of the area and the representation of the collected data.
Porada, Mikhael. "Virtual «Genius loci», or the Urban Genius of the Lieu." In Challenges of the Future: 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Vienna, Austria: Vienna University of Technology, 1997. Under the influence of information and communication technologies urban and architectural space perception is fundamentally changing. The paper is trying to investigate the reasons and effects of these changes, and propose some directions for future studies.