Keywords Abstract
Hanna, R.. "A Computer-based Approach for Teaching Daylighting at the Early Design Stage." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 181-190. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper has reviewed the literature on the teaching of daylight systems design in architectural education, and found that traditionally such teaching has evolved around the prediction of the Daylight Factor (DF%), i.e. illuminance, via two methods one studio-based and another laboratory based. The former relies on graphical and/or mathematical techniques, e.g. the BRE Protractors, the BRE Tables, Waldram Diagrams, the Pepper-pot diagrams and the BRE formula. The latter tests scale models of buildings under artificial sky conditions (CIE sky). The paper lists the advantages and disadvantages of both methods in terms of compatibility with the design process, time required, accuracy, energy-consumption facts, and visual information.   This paper outlines a proposal for an alternative method for teaching daylight and artificial lighting design for both architectural students and practitioners. It is based on photorealistic images as well as numbers, and employs the Lumen Micro 6.0 programme. This software package is a complete indoor lighting design and analysis programme which generates perspective renderings and animated walk-throughs of the space lighted naturally and artificially.  The paper also presents the findings of an empirical case study to validate Lumen Micro 6.0 by comparing simulated output with field monitoring of horizontal and vertical illuminance and luminance inside the highly acclaimed GSA building in Glasgow. The monitoring station was masterminded by the author and uses the Megatron lighting sensors, Luscar dataloggers and the Easylog analysis software. In addition photographs of a selected design studio inside the GSA building were contrasted with computer generated perspective images of the same space.
Colajanni, B, T. Martelli, and G. Pellitteri. "A Tool for the Analysis of the Behaviour of Building Components: the Cellular Automation." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 99-110. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. An implementation of a cellular automation is presented that allows the simulation of the behaviour of building components under diverse environment conditions. The tool has a wide range of applications because of the generality of its structure. The object on which it operates is represented as a set of cells each of which is defined, besides its geometrical dimension and position, by a set of variables and parameters. The work it performs consists in computing transitions from a state to another, i.e. the values variables and parameters take in each cell under the action of external agents and of internal laws of interaction between self As an example of its use an application is shown analysing the thermal behaviour of the connection of a curtain wall to a concrete floor.
Arlati, E., V. Bottelli, and C. Fogh. "Applying CBR to the Teaching of Architectural Design." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 41-50. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper presents an approach to the analysis and description of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design, the development of a conceptual model for Galathea, a case-based navigation tool for its support, and the application of this theoretical foundation to the teaching of design to a group of about 100 second-year architecture students. Design is assumed as a globally coherent information, memory and experience-intensive process in which professional skill is the capability to govern a large number of continually evolving variables in the direction of desired change. This viewpoint on design has guided the development of Galathea, the model of a tool aimed at describing architectural design through the description, mapping and management of the complete decision-making path of projects by means of the dynamic representation of the relationship between goals, constraints and the decisions/actions adopted at specific nodes and through the creation of a case-base aimed at the storage, retrieval and adaptation of relevant design moves in similar project contexts. This conceptual model is applied to educational activity at the faculty of Architecture of Milan, with the aim of teaching how to govern a project from the outset considering it as an evolving but coherent map of design moves, which allow the adoption of the correct decisions involving the most disparate types of information, experience and memory, and which altogether conduct to the desired goal. The resolution paths of the students, all applied to the same architecture problem, result in a design move case-base, the further utilisation and interest of which is open to collegial discussion.
Agranovich-Ponomarieva, E., A. Litvinova, and A Mickich. "Architectural Computing in School and Real Designing." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 25-28. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996.

The existing system of architectural education ( including computer ) as has shown practice has appeared not absolutly perfect. It not capable to dynamic changes, active introduction of a new engineering and computer technologies, to realization about of the inquiries of a modern time. It suggest of a way of search of new models of computer training. The computer education is represented by us as certain a universal system, which permits to solve the problem of arcitectural education at a higher level. The opportunities of computers and computer technologies at such approach are used as means of increase of efficiency teaching and training. The orientation goes on final result: a opportunity to generate of the creative decisions by learnees, based on attraction of received knowledge and use for their realization of arsenal of practical skills and skills. The system represents not only certain set of experiences elements, necessary and final result sufficient for achievement, but also quite certain interrelation between them. It means, that the knowledge from a initial rate “The Introduction in computer training” must be secured and transformed for utilization in special rates and through them- in practice. The functional nucleus of the software package of such universal system is under construction as opened, apparatus an independent system. A central part of a system is a database, the structure of which is uniform for all other modules and side of enclosures. The conceptual model of a system is under construction on principles structure idea, visualization, multimedia. The listed principles are realized in model so that to encourage the user to independent creative work.

Amirante, Isabella, and Ernesto Burattini. "Automatic Procedures for Bio-Climatic Control." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 29-40. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The experiences illustrated here are related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy and these ones in particular have been concentrated on the technological aspects of teaching architecture. We can consider the evolution of the architect from the individual operator to the manager multi- disciplinary aspects of the building process ( building process manager) as a reality today. Information technology, specifically applied to bio-climatic architecture and environmental control, can be of great importance for this professional role, and for this reason it is very useful to include these topics at the beginning the teaching design process. This paper describes a particular approach to bio-climatic problems of the architectural project. An experimental course has been performed by the second year students of the “Laboratorio di Construzione dell'Architettura”, at the School of Architecture of the Second University of Naples, in Aversa. Analysing old and new buildings, they used some flow charts for the evaluation and representation of energetic behaviour of buildings regarding their climatic and geographical environment. In the flow charts the decisions are represented by boxes that allow to determine “rightness index” related to: morphological characters of the site and environment, typology and particular organisation of the inside spaces, shape of building, technological solution of the building “skin”. The navigation through the decision boxes is made with simple options like, “winds: protected or exposed site”, “shape of building, free, close or cross plane”, “presence of trees on the south,, yes or not”,, it shows the students the bio-climatic quality of the building and, through numeric value assigned to each option, determines the “weight” of its climatic comfort.
Ferrar, Steve. "Back to the Drawing Board?" In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 155-162. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. I am starting my presentation with some slides of architecture as a reminder that above all else we are involved in the education of future architects. Such is the enthusiasm of many of us for our specialist subject that computers dominate any discussion of architecture. We must not lose sight of the fact that we are using computers to assist in the manipulation of space, form, light, texture and colour, and in communicating our ideas. They should also be helping us and our students to understand and deal with the relationship of built form to its environment, its users and other buildings. The use of computers should not get in the way of this. In the final analysis the image on a computer screen is only that - an image, a representation of a building. It is not the building itself. It is a means to an end and not an end in itself. The image must not be a substitute for the physical building. We must remember that we use most of our other senses when experiencing a building and it is just as important to be able to touch, hear and smell a piece of architecture as well as being able to see it. Who knows, perhaps even taste is important. How much does the use of computers affect the design process and the final appearance of the building? Would these buildings have been substantially different if a system of working in three dimensions, similar to computer aided design, had been available to these architects. To what degree has the design process and method of working shaped the architecture of designers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Carlo Scarpa, Louis Sullivan, Charles Rennie Mackintosh or Alvar Aalto.
Roberts, Andrew. "CAAD - the Role of the Design Tutor." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 381-386. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Whilst it is often argued that computers have an positive role to play in the educational process, design tutors frequently view computer based design work as being of inferior quality to that of designs produced by traditional means. This may be no fault of the technology, but more likely a consequence of a studentis inappropriate use of that technology. It could be argued that part of the role of the design tutor is to encourage students to use technology in a more appropriate way, rather than to totally discourage the use of computers in their designs. The introduction of computer technologies has led to new ways of designing, which may be very different to the methods of design that are traditionally taught. This paper proposes that the successful implementation of CAAD in Architectural design education, can only be achieved if design tutors fully appreciate and embrace these new design methodologies, in a way which extends beyond the need to simply accept the new technology.
Sliwinski, Jacek. "CAAD - to Teach, or not to Teach?" In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 403-406. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Usefulness of CAAD in architectural practice is not a matter to discuss. Probably it is very hard nowadays to find an architect practitioner who really believes, that CAAD isn't a useful tool in architectural office. Finding a job after finishing the studies at faculty of architecture isn't easy without knowledge of computer. For us as teachers it is a great challenge. We want our students to be as well as possible prepared for their work. So problem, how to put CAAD into amount of their knowledge is a very important point. However, computers are nowadays probably the fastest changing element of our reality. Differences between software and hardware used a few years ago and now are sometimes colossal. In spite of the fact, that in the field of using computers in design we are usually ahead of most architects practitioners, I think we are sentenced to be backward contemporary demands. Program of teaching CAAD prepared even with great care and accuracy is obsolete even when it starts. It is impossible to catch up with future. Which is a right place for CAAD in architectural education? Is it not true, that sometimes we try to teach CAAD by architecture instead of teaching architecture by CAAD?  For many students CAAD is the most natural tool for design, a tool which has replaced pencil and a sheet of paper. Is it our success? I am not so sure. Limitations of CAAD systems are much bigger than pencil's one. Like every sophisticated tool it limits amount of possible solutions. CAAD should not be a fetish! I think maybe it is not such a stupid idea not to teach CAAD, but let our students find a right place for it like for any other useful tools?
Paranandi, Murali. "CAAD as a Thinking Medium: a Strategy for Computer Aided Architectural Design Education." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 313-324. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper is organized into two parts. The first part is a commentary on the state of CAAD in response to the three very important pedagogical issues raised by Klerker in the conference theme narrative. The second part presents an introductory course developed and taught by the author that is based on a very simple premise, until intelligent CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) programs become available, use what is available intelligently. The pedagogical model employed is explained. Some of the work done by the students of this course is included. The impact of this course on the curriculum in the school, the marketability of our students, and our future plans are summarized in the concluding remarks.
Hendricx, A., Herman Neuckermans, H. Vandevyvere, and K. Nuyts. "CAAD in Pedagogical Practice." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 199-210. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The course on CAAD at the KU Leuven is part of the course on design methodology and theory from which it is the most recent and natural extension. Attached to this course a series of assignments has been developed which bring the students in 45 hours to a non-trivial level of acquaintance with CAAD. Our assignments are primarily directed towards practice. They are built on top of AutoCAD to which we have added in-house developments in order to focus on specific pedagogical goals within a very limited time. After a general introduction on Windows (file management) and AutoCAD (basics) students make the following assignments (main pedagogical goals in between brackets). colophon (working with blocks), detail (2D-drawing, hatching, editing), facade design using a built-in system of proportion (slides, scriptfile), extraction (linking alphanumerical and graphical entities), container (level of detail, icon menus, viewports), surface modelling (modelling 3D-objects with surfaces), fractal tree (recursion in Autolisp), solid modelling (Leicester engineering building), lighting (integration of drawing and computation of illumination levels), pressure lines in an arc (interactive design of an arc), demos. The paper presents and comments these assignments and shows results from the last 2 years.
Biagini, Carlo. "CAAD in the Transformability Evaluation of Historical Buildingsof Historical Buildings." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 55-58. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. In the execution of a research, which was intended to identify methods and instruments for transformability evaluation of historical buildings, CAAD was usefully employed in the decision-making process at different levels. From an operative point of view, it was fundamental instruments for the acquisition of typomorphological data inherent to pre-existent buildings. It allowed us to create an archive of information which can be easily and flexibly up-dated. In fact the critical evaluation of these buildings is based on the identification of structural patterns which have characterized the typological evolution of the urban structure, and thus the different historical stratifications have to be carefully catalogued, profoundly analyzed and compared one with the other. CAAD was even more effective during the phase of meta-designing checking concerning the choices effected for conversion of old buildings, since it was possible to prefigure different scenarios according to formulated hypotheses and this gave us the opportunity to evaluate their effective practicability in relation to typo- morphological congruence and logical and formal connection between the old building and new design proposals.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "CAAD Teaching in the Electronic Era." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 239-242. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The popularization and wide acceptance of computer technologies is changing the position and role of CAAD in architectural education and practice. The changing profile of architectural students with respect to computing leads to a reconsideration of priorities and structure in CAAD education. These are evident in the growing acceptance of the computer as part of the standard design instrumentation and in the shift from theoretical issues to hands-on experience in CAAD courses and exercises. As such changes can only continue to occur, probably at a faster pace, CAAD has to re-evaluate its position so as to anticipate the emerging patterns of computing in architecture and design. We can distinguish between three possible outcomes. The first is decentralization of CAAD and distribution of CAAD specialists to the other specializations in architecture and building. The second is concentration on theory and methodology and use of the computer as an instrument for verifying insights and hypotheses. The third option -the worst case scenario- is degradation to a supporting role, subordinate to the designer and the theorist.
Coyne, Richard. "CAAD, Curriculum and Controversy." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 121-130. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper brings some of the debate within educational theory to bear on CAAD teaching, outlining the contributions of conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics and pragmatism. The paper concludes by recommending that CAAD teaching move away from conservative concepts of teaching, design and technology to integrate it into the studio. In a highly illuminating book on education theory, Shaun Gallagher (1991) outlines four current views on education that correspond to four major positions in contemporary social theory and philosophy. I will extend these categories to a consideration of attitudes to information technology, and the teaching of computing in architecture. These four positions are conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics, and pragmatism. I will show how certain issues cluster around them, how each position provides the focus of various discursive practices, or intellectual conversations in contemporary thinking, and how information technology is caught up in those conversations. These four positions are not “cognitive styles,” but vigorously argued domains of debate involving writers such as Gadamer, Habermas and Derrida about the theory of interpretation. The field of interpretation is known as hermeneutics, which is concerned less with epistemology and knowledge than with understanding. Interpretation theory applies to reading texts, interpreting the law, and appreciating art, but also to the application of any practical task, such as making art, drawing, defining and solving problems, and design (Coyne and Snodgrass, 1995). Hermeneutics provides a coherent focus for considering many contemporary issues and many domains of practice. I outline what these positions in education mean in terms of CAAD (computer-aided architectural design) in the curriculum.
Kulinski, Jaroslaw. "Coherency and Automation of the Design Process Applied in CAD Systems." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 243-252. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The article discusses a few postulates concerning the desirable structure of design data base with the aim of allowing the concurrent work in the design process. It depicts the problems of simultaneous access to the data base, and discusses the problems of redundancy of design information and their consequences in the structure of the design data base. Finally, a few examples of CAD systems are examined in order to find out how they deal with the problems of design partitioning and keeping it automatically coherent as well as some educational remarks are formulated.
Martens, Bob, Wolfgang Dokonal, E Schmidinger, and A. Voigt. "Collaborative Teamwork - Challenges of the Future." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 263-272. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Collaborative Teamwork is regarded to be one of the most outstanding fields of teaching and research within the context of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning. This focal field is closely related to the research field of “Remote Teamworki, i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures for research, project transactions and teaching. The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the description of two teaching projects, namely “BraGraLuWii (collaborative teamwork between the universities of Technology Bratislava, Graz, Luton and Vienna) and carrying-out a VRML-workshop, furthermore to the development of Remote Teamwork-structures preferably on the basis of “ATMi (a technology of broad band telecommunications) at Vienna University of Technology.
Murison, Alison. "Computer Based Learning for Architecture Students, a Methodology for Evaluating the Teaching and Learning." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 287-292. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The paper describes a methodology applied to the production, and evaluation of a computer based teaching package. In producing multimedia materials for teaching or for presentation, too much emphasis is sometimes given to the beauty of the images while not enough thought is given to the structure of the material. Is the student or “vieweri led through all the most important information? Can the use of computer based learning improve the quality of the teaching and learning experience? These issues are addressed, using as an example the production and testing of a package designed to complement a course on History of Scottish Architecture intended for senior students and especially to emphasise the Scottish context for exchange students. The package describes Linlithgow Palace in Scotland, showing how the contemporary political links between the Scotland and Italy were influential in the development of Renaissance architecture in Scotland.
Brown, A., Michael Knight, and May Nahab. "Computer Generated Architectural Images in Practice: what kind and when?" In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 79-86. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The production of near-photorealistic images of buildings is becoming increasingly common. The software to produce reasonably sophisticated images being available at affordable prices and the increasing power of generally affordable computers have contributed to this trend. It is also probably the case that the run-of-the-mill architectural practice sees the competition producing this kind of image with a superficially beguiling quality and follow suit. What we ask in this paper is whether we should be more thoughtful about the kind of image used? Should the kind of image chosen to suit the stage of the design that it applies to and the nature of the human agents viewing the image? Of course, in posing the question we imply our answer, that it should. What we do in this paper is to illustrate why we feel it should and what the consequences are for the education of architects who are about to join the world of practice.
Costanzo, Ezilda, and Antonio De Vecchi. "Computer-Aided Planning of Connections Among Building Components." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 111-120. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. In these last years the use of advanced technological types of construction, prevalently consisting of mechanical assembly systems, is also spreading to create connections among building elements. The aim of the research we are carrying on is to develop an automated software tool aiding the planning of assembly systems adopted in building, which are often characterised by high complexity levels. At the present, such subject is being studying in the mechanical field, but the difference of components and of products, seldom mass-produced and industrialised in building, make only few factors be available to our field, where further and different investigations are required.
Glanville, Ranulph. "Computers, Education and Architecture for the Lost Profession." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 171-180. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Those who build are gradually, at the moment, subverting the traditional role of the architect. Architecture needs new ways of expressing itself. Architects need new ways of being architects. There are less and less jobs, and those there are are less and less to do with Architecture. In this essay, I am concerned to confront the question of what computers mean for education and professionalism (especially in architecture), and, thus, for us as architects and teachers of computing. The argument is centred in architecture, but its conclusions are, I believe, also more generally tenable.
Refvem, Sharon. "Constructive Learning Techniques and Color Application in Design." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 371-380. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper presents some of the results of my work in the area of architectural education and color application. “Constructive Learning” techniques are the framework within which a course in color theory and application has been developed for architectural students and professionals. Constructive learning theory designates three main learning phases: introductory, advanced and experienced, each of which has a unique set of requirements that must be addressed by those seeking to teach or develop meaningful tools for a given task. The introductory level is represented by those who posses little if any prior skills or knowledge in the subject area. Here it is advantageous to carefully guide the knowledge acquisition process in order to help build a knowledge foundation upon which a personalized learning process can take place. Advanced students are those that are ready, through a more focused, context related approach, to expand their capabilities. Finally, experienced learners can be defined as those capable of critically applying and innovatively using the knowledge, skills and tools that they have obtained through the introductory and advanced phases of the learning process. Because computers introduce the issue of color at a much earlier stage of design than might previously have been the case, a new set of skills and tools are needed. The proposed course seeks to define an appropriate learning methodology for designers that can provide them with not only knowledge of the subject area being covered, but also skills with which to approach it.
Heikkilä, Rauno, and Harri Haapasalo. "Creative Computer Aided Architectural Design." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 191-198. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Computer aided architectural design is considered on the basis of the newest knowledge of man's creative thinking and intuitive design. A creative architectural design method of universal application is outlined. The method is verified on account of both the empirical observations from practical architectural design as well as the presentations of architects in the literature. The policies of different CAAD programs are discussed. Lines for the development of a new creative CAAD program is also discussed.
MacCallum, C., and R. Hanna. "DEFLECT: a Computer Aided Learning Package for Teaching Structural Design ." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 253-262. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The teaching of structures and its integration with design teaching has been seen as one of the major problems in design education in schools of architecture world-wide. A number of suggestions have been put forward to improve the quality of teaching in structures in architecture. These include the production of computer based learning materials, and the use of the computer as a “substitute” tutor.  This paper reports on a SHEFC funded project jointly carried out by the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Paisley, the Mackintosh School of Architecture, and Lamp Software. The project aims to build a computer-assisted learning package on the response of structures to load. The software will be used as an interactive teaching tool for both architectural and engineering students.  The package has three levels: Beginners (Level 1), Intermediate (Level 2) and Advanced (Level 3). The first two levels have been completed after continuous feedback from both institutions. Level 1 is geared towards architectural and engineering students to help them understand structural behaviour of building components, such as deflection. Level 2 is a graphical editor that enables students to draw precisely the structure of their designs, investigate the deflection of structural members and identify areas of tension and compression. Level 3 is a design tool aimed at architectural and civil engineering students where they can design and analyse realistic structures by choosing structural members from a library, and specify materials and multiple loads.  Prior to its final release, the software package was appraised by students from both institutions. Analysis of results from questionnaires revealed that students expressed a great deal of'satisfaction'with many of its teaching and learning attributes. The outcome of this project will promote and enhance studentsi understanding of the response of structures to load, it will also help students grasp the impact of varying building materials and cross sectional properties on the structural form.
Park, Hoon. "Digital and Manual Media in Design." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 325-334. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Although there is an important commitment to the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems in the design studio, there are still technologies that are not broadly accepted as useful to the designer especially in the early design stage. This is because CAD systems use the monitor and mouse which differ from the sketch paper and pen of manual media. This presentation explores how CAD systems can be applicable and integrated to this early design stage by allowing paper as a digital medium. With this exploration, I look at some ways for bridging manual media and digital media. For accommodating this approach, this article includes the evaluation of a prototype CAD system that discusses enhancing the role of CAD systems in the early design stage and linking the realms of the two currently distinct media  ?  manual and digital. This system allows the designer to work with computer based and paper based tools in the same conventional environment. The method provides interesting insights into the relationship between digital and manual media.
Jakimowicz, Adam. "Education of the Architect - Two Approaches Towards Possible Places of CAD." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 211-220. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper discusses the limitations of the most of educational systems of the present, which seem to be no longer sufficient to face the problems of the modern world. This concerns as well architectural education. Computer Aided Design is considered here as a specific case in a wider context of general goals of education. The linear, memory based, cause - effect model of education, where remembering of final effects of the processes is the criterion of teaching efficiency, does not respond to the growing complexity of problems. The task for today is to develop the individual ability to synthesise and creatively explore spheres between separate fields and reconsider the issue of values. This paper therefore emphasises the importance of the person in education, seeing the problem of its full development as a new base and final aim for education as a whole.
Petric, Jelena. "From Pre-History to Braveheart - a Multi-Media Document of Scottish Settlements." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 355-364. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. An attempt is made to combine, in this written paper and in the multimedia presentation to the conference participants, an experience of the extra-ordinarily rich early Scottish settlements - of which little is known or understood throughout mainland Europe.  The text of the paper is unillustrated and historical in character, the conference presentation will be in multimedia and will discuss how the technology has been used to show and explain the physical development of early communities in Scotland.  This paper provides an historical context in which the paper on Skara Brae can be put in a context of settlement in some of the most northerly parts of our European continent.
Bosco, Antonio. "Hypertext for Building Rehabilitation. a didactic Use of an Innovative Methodology of Diagnosis of the Building Decay." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 59-64. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. In the paper presented in the last ECAADE conference in Palermo we described a first hypertext for the analysis of ancient buildings. One section of the hypertext was devoted to show diagnostic procedures and specific instrumental tests for building rehabilitation. We can consider that the hypertext represent the best answer to the request of an organised knowledge coming from students of the schools of architecture and public operators. So we describe how the proposed arrangement of the diagnostic tests can become a real operative tool technicians of public agencies and powerful means of building technology knowledge for students too. The diagnostic procedures are related to the specific needs of the architectural design, changing ways to archive the tests are showed. The goal is to allow the architects, operating in the rehabilitation field, to operate the right choice of diagnostic methods to avoid doing many unnecessary, expensive tests.
Verbeke, Johan, J. Verleye, and K. Nys. "Is there a Place for CAAD 'Upstream ?" In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 407-414. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. We are especially interested in the use of Computer Aided Architectural design during the initial stages of the design process. We are looking for the added value of CAAD for architecture. Within this context we will give the main ideas behind the educational system of the Institute and we will describe the place of CAAD in the curriculum. We will also describe the global concept of the project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design).
Zorgno, Anna Maria, P. Brusasco, and L. Caneparo. "Large-scale Design Project Integration across Computer Networks." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 415-425. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper presents the study of a computer system capable of supporting the information work connected with a design project at an urban scale. The computer system must fulfil a number of specific requirements. First, it must integrate a complex set of instruments for creating, retrieving, manipulating, processing, managing the interaction between the users and the overall information regarding the project. Secondly, it must operate at a geographical level to connect the various actors involved. Third, because of the heterogeneity of the participants involved, it must be compatible with numerous systems, even low entry, to ensure effective accessibility even to small companies, firms and citizens. The computer networks extend the possibility of accessing the information beyond the project employees, towards the citizens. In the computers and in the networks, which connect them, the idea of interaction as communication and reciprocal action is inherent. A result is the possibility of interacting dynamically with the information, of assimilating, modifying, and redistributing it in progress. An high level of accessibility and interactivity with respect to information points to different approaches to architectural design and urban planning.
Breen, Jack. "Learning from the (In)Visible City." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 65-78. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper focuses on results and findings of an educational project, in which the participating students had to develop a design strategy for an urban plan by using and combining endoscopic and computational design visualisation techniques. This educational experiment attempted to create a link between the Media research programme titled'Dynamic Perspective'and an educational exercise in design composition.  It was conceived as a pilot study, aimed at the investigation of emerging applications and possible combinations of different imaging techniques which might be of benefit in architectural and urban design education and potentially for the (future) design practice. The aim of this study was also to explore the relationship between spatial perception and design simulation. The point of departure for the student exercise was an urban masterplan which the Dynamic Perspective research team prepared for the workshop'the (in)visible city'as part of the 1995 European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference in Vienna, Austria. The students taking part in the exercise were asked to develop, discuss and evaluate proposals for a given part of this masterplan by creating images through different model configurations using optical and computer aided visualisation techniques besides more traditional design media.The results of this project indicate that an active and combined use of visualisation media at a design level, may facilitate communication and lead to a greater understanding of design choices, thus creating insights and contributing to design decision-making both for the designers and for the other participants in the design process.
Pellegrino, Anna, and Luca Caneparo. "Lighting Simulation for Architectural Design: a Case Study." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 335-346. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The paper considers some of the lighting simulation instruments at present available to architects for lighting design. We study the usability and accuracy of various systems, scale models, numerical simulations, rendering programs. An already built environment is the reference comparison for the accuracy of the simulation systems. The accuracy of the systems is evaluated for respectively quantitative simulation and qualitative visualisation. Quantitatively, the programs compute photometric values in physical units in a discrete number of points of the environment. Qualitatively, the programs generate images of visible radiation comparable to photographs of the real environment. They combine calculations with computer graphics, that is, they translate numerical values into images.
Gavin, Lesley. "Practice and on -Line Learning." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 163-170. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. In response to the growing need for the provision of continuing education for architects in practice, the Open University has been examining the possibilities of offering postgraduate courses in the Built Environment. The Open University is a unique institution within the UK, in that all of its 150,000 students are taught through supported open learning. The production of teaching material for distance learning on this scale has involved the exploration of various teaching and learning methods. The OU has had over 25 years experience of distance learning as such and although many of its current teaching methods lend themselves admirably to the development of computer based distance learning, there is still ample opportunity to exploit new technologies in teaching methods. Recent developments within the field of multimedia, video conferencing etc. lend themselves admirably to visually orientated subjects such as architecture. Over the last year the programme of development into the Built Environment has involved the production of 3 pilot modules in the areas of Conservation, Sustainability in Architecture & Planning, and in Construction Technology. These modules are currently being developed for production on CD-ROM, but with a long term view that they may be offered on-line.  This paper will discuss how computer technology can be utilised in continuing education beyond schools of architecture and into a practice based environment.
Mitossi, Vicky, and Alexander Koutamanis. "Preparing for Action: Responding to Requirements from Practice." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 273-280. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The proliferation of computing in architectural practice is turning CAAD knowledge into an essential qualification for a graduate. Inevitably there are different perceptions of how this knowledge should be obtained and what it must entail. Despite these differences it appears that there is general agreement on a combination of components ranging from computer literacy to theoretical knowledge. The transition from academic education to practice means that the graduate has to re-evaluate and re-arrange these components with respect to two main criteria: relevance to practice and their potential for reforming practice.
Ng, Edward. "Say what You do and do what You Say." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 293-300. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. In the forthcoming globalisation and virtual almost everything, we are indeed reliving a moment of history when, at the turn of the century, machines replace craftsman in mass-producing goods quicker, cheaper,'better'and faster for the mass market regardless of the appropriateness in using the machine. So much so that the recent proliferation of computer graphics has reached a stage where many are questioning their validity and usefulness in the advancement of architectural discourse. This paper argues that the pedagogy of the use of the new tools should be effective communication in vision and in representation. In short, saying what you do and doing what you say, no more and no less, or to be'true'and'honest'. The paper tries to provide a hypothetical framework whereby the rationale of drawing could be more systematically understood and criticised, and it reports ways the framework is introduced in the teaching of design studio. The focus of the experimental studio (Active Studio 1.6 beta) is to enable the substantiation of ideas and feelings through a critical manipulation of medium and techniques. The results are narratives whereby the expression of intention as well as the drawings are both on trial. 
Oxman, Rivka. "Shared Design-Web-Space in Internet-Based Design." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 301-312. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The introduction of the computer into architectural studies has resulted in innovative pedagogical approaches to design education. In recent years we have employed a teaching approach in which the student models the formalization of design knowledge in a computerized environment and experiments with the formal processing of this knowledge in the generation of designs. Interacting with the computer in the generation of designs requires making design knowledge explicit and formalized. Knowledge modelling is an approach to design and education in which the designer models the design thinking involved in the making of the object. In this process appropriate computational technology is essential to support and enhance certain phenomena of reasoning. From the pedagogical point of view such computational design environment appear also to enhance design learning and performance through the capability gained in computer modelling. In this respect, there is an analogous impact on the potential of design knowledge environments which can support design performance in practice. In this paper we consider the Internetas a potential design knowledge environment. The nature of the Net as a medium for the representation, storage and accessing of design knowledge is presented and various research issues are introduced. The potential of this new medium as a resource for design learning, design practice and design collaboration derives from the attributes of the technology. We elaborate on the appropriateness of certain attributes of the medium as a potential design environment. Future possibilities of the Net as a shared design resource are proposed. Considerations of the Net as a collaboratively constructed design resource as well as a medium for collaborative design are introduced.
Moorhouse, J.. "Teach a Man to Catch a Fish." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 281-286. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. An international charity outlined the following principle recently in an advertisement. “Give a man a fish and he will feed himself for a day, teach a man how to catch a fish and he will feed himself for a lifetime.” In education, the same principle may be applied to learning. To the student of architecture, skills in the use of commercial software may be advantageouus in the search for future employment and can prove for be a useful springboard for exploring the potential of CAAD in a broader sense. However, software (and hardware) is continually being upgraded and developed, and it is apparent that such software does not fully meet the need of the designer.  Exploring the possibilities of CAADesigning as an integral part of learning to design will equip the student with the CAAD literacy necessary for working in practice, but more importantly will provide the student with a rich and diverse understanding of design approaches. Traditionally design tutors have taught (by example) how individual architects design. Providing a library of architects CAADesigning in different ways can be used to establish precedents and examples, demystify the activities to both students and tutors and provide a rich set of methodologies as a working context for students to draw inspiration from. As part of an ongoing research study, a new direction has been taken gathering, comparing, contrasting and grouping live records of architects CAADesigning. This paper will outline the benefits of recording and creating such a library and will describe examples of recent findings.
Achten, Henri. "Teaching Advanced Architectural Issues Through Principles of CAAD." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 16-Jul. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. The paper discusses the differences between teaching CAAD by using standard software (“off-the-shelf”-software) and teaching the principles of CAAD (“principles-teaching”). The paper distinguishes four kinds of application for design systems in education: social systems, professional systems, educational systems, and innovative systems. The paper furthermore proposes to distinguish between computational issues and architectural issues relative to design systems. It appears that there is not a principled distinction between software-teaching and principles-teaching when it comes to computational issues of design systems. However, when the architectural content of CAAD systems is concerned, then principles of CAAD systems seem to be more appropriate for teaching. The paper presents work on generic representations as a specific case. Generic representations can be used to teach one particular kind of architectural content of design systems. The paper ends with conclusions.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Teaching and Learning - Full Brainwash." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 51-54. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. We often speak of changes in design process due to an application of computers. But in my opinion we more often rather speak of lack of changes. Lets hope that some day we will be able to witness full integrity and compatibility of design process and tools applied in it. Quite possible such an integrity may occur in the cyberspace. Nevertheless before that could happen some changes within the teaching methods at faculties of architecture, where despite great numbers of computer equipment used, the students are still being taught as in the XIX century. In terms of achieved results it proves ineffective because application of chalk and blackboard only will always loose to new media, which allow visual perception of dinosaurs in Jurassic Park. Our civilisation is the iconographic one. And that is why teaching methods are about to change. An application of computer as simply a slide projector seems to be way too expensive. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. Lets hope that could be achieved in cyberspace as being a combination of: classic ways of teaching, hypertext, multimedia, virtual reality and a new teaching methodology (as used in Berlitz English School - full brainwash). At our faculty several years ago we experimentally undertook and applied an Integrated Design Teaching Method. A student during design process of an object simultaneously learnt all aspects and functions of the object being designing i.e.: its structure, piping and wiring, material cost and even historic evolution of its form and function. Unfortunately that concept was too extravagant as for the seventies in our reality. At present due to wide implementation of new media and tools in design process we come to consider reimplementation of IDTM again.
Kirschner, Ursula. "Teaching Experimental Design with CAAD." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 221-226. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. 2-D CAAD is the standard tool in architectural work and education. whereas 3-dimensional CAAD is still used to present a finished design. This paper demonstrates that experimental design in 3-D allows students to deal with new methods of design. At North East Lower Saxony Polytechnic, 1995 saw the beginning of development of didactic methods for teaching design with the interactive use of common 3-D CAAD tools. Six exercises were devised, the first two being 2-D exercises in urban and layout design. Subsequent steps introduced three styles of architectural designing with 3-D tools. The students selected one of these styles for their three-day exercise in urban planning. Based on the results, three main ways were developed: the “digital toolkit”, the “additive design approach” and the “lighting simulation”.
Dawson, Anthony, and Mark Burry. "The Continuing Dichotomy: Practice vs. Education." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 131-142. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. While it is apparent from the architectural literature that some practices are innovative in their use of computers for architectural design, clear evidence indicates that most architectural practices have applied computing to traditional practice paradigms. Information technology is therefore being applied to practice systems which were in place prior to computers being available. This has significant implications for architectural education in which there is tension developing between the requirements of the commercially oriented architectural practice and the innovation driven computer-aided architectural design educator. The first wishes to equip graduates for immediate and productive employment in computerised architectural practices and may be loosely interpreted as a graduateis ability to work as a CAD operator within an architectural practice environment. The second has the desire for students to be innovative in their use of information technology as an aid in informing and evaluating parts of both the design process and its outcomes. However, it is only when both architects and educators identify the architectural process as an integrated information system that these tensions can be resolved. This requires reconsideration of the function and use of information technology in both educational institutions and in architectural practices. The paper discusses how fruitful this can be in the current environment and outlines current developments at Deakin University which aim at providing a middle ground
Rüdiger, Bjarne. "The Masonry House Raised as an Exhibition and Information Building." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 387-390. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. At many schools of architecture the studies are directed to practical, professional use, and this fact results in different attitudes. But normally, it will be so that the longer the student goes in the study the more aspects from practice will be involved. Therefore, the studies passes from the work with the design itself and the more artistic sides to the work with planning and production. The basis of the educational progress and the professional level is research and development. Within CAD it is important that this research develops as well the theoretical foundation and includes experience in the practical use. An attitude which prioritizes the practical qualifications late in the studies has of course an effect in the CAD instruction. Tendencies to consider the computer to be a tool of drawing and visualization will dominate, and the work with structuralized information models for a general documentation has had minor interest until now, and this also includes the use of professional applications developed from different conventions in support of collaboration and quality control. The dialogue between the environment of education and research on one hand and the professional business in practice must be considered important for the developing process in the use of CAD and for the building of usable IT models. The work with “The Masonry House” and later “The Building Trade House” tries to expose how a deliberate structuralization of the CAD model early in the sketching- and planning process can support as well the more esthetic estimates as the building technology documentation. And also point out the professional qualifications bound up with 11 to be integrated in the study course.
Penttila, Hannu, and Hannu Penttillä. "The Meaning of CAAD in Architectural Education." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 347-354. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. A brief historical analysis followed by some possible future scenarios The influence of CAD - nowadays more correctly stated with CAAD meaning architectural CAD - has been more and more evident in the university level architectural education. The development process of architectural CAD-courses and wider CAD-curriculums could, at least in Scandinavian countries, be described and simplified with a couple of development steps analyzed here, to give the starting point. And since the process of educational evolution will naturally keep on developing in the future also, some possible future paths concerning both CAD-equipment, CAAD-education and more traditional architectural curriculumns, are described here after the historical analysis.  Following commonly used futures studies methods, my intent is not to predict the future, but to give several probable future choices, of which some might come true, and some might not. Some of the paths are evident, some are ideal and some may cause also negative effects. The future of architectural education and CAAD as part of it will certainly appear somehow, very possibly somewhere in the middle of these presented paths. The aim of this presentation is to give the architectural education community - the schools and faculty - a wide perspective view to analyze and plan their local course structures also for the future. The future possibilities are presented here, so that the schools can prepare for the forecoming future changes in their workin environment. Finally, the future will appear the way we will create it.
Kokosalakis, Jen. "The Role and Status of Computing and Participation of Design Clients in the Curriculum." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 227-238. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper is not intended as a fully researched exploration into architecture course coverage, but an attempt to introduce debate regarding some concerns on the role and status of Computing and consumer participation in the hope that CAAD peers will discuss and reflect with other specialists. A number of commentaries on serious deficiencies in the education of architects point to poor take-up of computing into the curriculum and an almost disassociation of the eventual designed building user from decisions on the design. By comparison it seems easier to find architects today who involve clients almost throughout the design process and increasing competency and continuity of CAAD usage in practices. The few brief references to Schoolsi curricula are not formalised random studies. Certainly many excellent features will have been omitted. The intention is to start the debate. Finally a few directions are noted and some conclusions proffered. An argument is made for 3D CAAD models as the backbone and direct negotiating focus for design arbitration between consumer, designer [or students] and other professional collaborators in tesigning buildings, particularly where complex forms and spatial relationships are involved.
Cicognani, Anna. "Thinking Beyond." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 87-98. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. If the new generation of architects is in need of tools, then we can consider ourselves lucky. On the market there are as many CAD systems as we would be able to learn and use in more than a Curriculum of a School of Architecture. On the other hand, being able to use the tools doesn't mean being able to produce good designs. It is often pointed out how much buildings designed by CAD systems look strangely similar. In the challenge of education, in Schools of Architecture, we need to help students to think beyond the tools themselves. This can be done with, for example, Virtual Design Studios and MUDs/MOOs, in which students can practise their architectural skills and adapt the tools to their design, instead of vice versa. This paper is a description of some attempts in educating how to think beyond tools in design tasks.
Donath, Dirk. "University CAAD-Education for Architectural Students - a Report on the Realisation of a User-oriented Computer Education at the Bauhaus University Weimar." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 143-154. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Practically no other field of human creativity is evolving as fast and innovatively as the development and integration of the computer into every possible area imaginable. The computer has today become a natural tool in the fields of architecture and space-planning. The changing form of professional practice due to the increasing application of computer assisted work techniques results in the need, currently being addressed in the education of future architects and town planners, to bring these new mediums into the realm between architecture - art - and building - science.
Klercker, Af. "Visualisation for Clients - One Example of Educating CAAD for Practice." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 17-24. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. During the spring term 1996, 13 students of the 3rd and 4th year at the School of Architecture at Lund University had the opportunity to make a one semester CAAD project. 11 students chose the individual exercise to use computer media for developing a small architectural design in interaction with a client. The focus was set more on visualization and the process of communicating ideas, feelings and practical solutions between architect and client and visa versa rather than concentrated on the final product.  This paper describes the process of the project and the reflections of the participants. It will discuss problems from the teachers point of view.
Scianna, Andrea. "What Software for Instruction in Architecture: Today Features and Needs for the Future." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 391-402. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. In the last years the computer technology has evolved very fast, new tendencies were also exploded in computer programming, such as object oriented programming, but the world of Computer Science still records other news as the introduction in the market of new graphic environments or operating systems such as Windows 95. As results of this evolution all the applications currently used in CAAD teaching and for practice, were heavily updated, so they have acquired new power for the immediate use but some other features, interesting for CAAD instruction, were lost. Today, the creation inside some CAD programs of those little applications that are one of the highest moment of “learning by doingi method, starts to require more knowledge of some computer science techniques and of the operating systems too.
Plocke, Tomasz. "Word and Picture in Education." In Education for Practice: 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 365-370. eCAADe: Conferences. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Technology, 1996. Education is an authority, it is a power. The power of independence and freedom first for teachers and then for theirs students. Teachers are responsible for an intellectual formation of students, who will build the future world. The teachers decide will they become creative people or only a well instructed members of a society. We are used to treat the education as a process of discovering and extending, but it can either be a process of covering and distributing only a selected part of knowledge. In my text I am trying to present a “picturei and a “wordi as symbols of two kinds of transferring information, two kinds of culture, and education. The division line goes between teaching instructions (“picturesi) and teaching ideas (“wordsi).I am undertaking that subject because of the fact, that our life is more and more dominated by consumption, subordination to technology, and overproduction of senseless information. People are loosing theirs individuality. Our civilisation becomes very superficial and “pictoriali. I belong to the “books generationi, probably it is the last generation for whom the books are so important. I am conscious of that, and that is why I am trying to emphasise the importance of a “wordi for a contemporary world, and for education.