Keywords Abstract
Maver, Thomas W., and Jelena Petric. "A Classification of Multi-Media Applications in Architecture." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 155-160. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Drawing on multi-media research and development in the ABACUS Group (Department of Architecture and Building Science at the University of Strathclyde), and on work from other Institutions reported in recent ECAADE and ACADIA conferences, this paper attempts a classification of the applications of multi-media to architectural education and practice. It goes on to identify further benefits which the technology could bring to Computer Aided Architectural Design. Finally, it proposes a mechanism for sharing our multi-media products.
Kokosalakis, Jen, and Jon Moorhouse. "A Documentation Methodology for Multimedia Recording of Architects Computer Aided Architectural Designing." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 203-216. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The focus of this paper is on teaching design through Computer Aided Architectural Design. Our present activity is to prepare Multimedia interviews showing how architects are designing using CAAD. We have for some time had relative success with students learning to design using the CAAD system extensively and creatively for their studio projects. This has led us to consider how best to teach in a way which encourages this creativity to extend and flourish. As with learning, broadly, and specifically with developing design ability, it is important to direct students to relevant established precedents of recent and classic examples of respected architects'approaches to similar design activities, in a body of historical and theoretical background. This tradition in teaching provides rich, invaluable learning material in design approaches and solutions. It appears that most material attempting to fill this role for CAADesign is in the form of written material, finished designs, or animations. Possibly the only way Computer Aided Architectural Designing activity can be understood fully is by documenting it in its own original media, (excepting direct first hand live observation). We are therefore preparing Multimedia records of interviews with architects and their real time computer activity, to build up a rich base of reference material supporting and expanding learning to design through CAAD.
Die?enbacher, Claus, and Ernst Rank. "A Multimedia Archaeological Museum." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 13-20. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper will present a project, which was first initiated in 1994 as a graduate students seminar and is now being continued as a research project in a cooperation of computer scientists, architects and archaeologists. An ancient roman city (Colonia Ulpia Traiana near todays Xanten in Germany) has been reconstructed, using various levels of abstraction. On the coarsest level, a 3D-model of the whole city was established, distinguishing between different historical periods of the city. The second level picks places of special interest (temples, the forum, the amphitheater, the townbaths etc.) and reconstructs these buildings or groups of buildings. On the finest level important interior parts or functional details like the Hypocaustae in the town-baths are modelled. All reconstructions are oriented as close as possible to results from excavations or other available documents. All levels of the 3D-model have been visualized using photorealistic images and sequences of video animations. The 3D model is integrated into a multimedia environment, augmenting the visualization elements with plans of the city and individual buildings and with text documents. It is intended, that parts of the outlined system will be available at the site of the ancient city, where today a large public archaeological park is located.
Allegra, M., G. Fulantelli, and G. Mangiarotti. "A New Methodology to Develop Hypermedia Systems for Architecture History." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 43-52. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper illustrates a research project concerning the analysis of architectural works through a comparative study based on hypermedia tools, by exploring the hypermedia, users can find the main subjects relative to the “method“ of architectural planning. The use of multimedia in architecture allows the integration in a single system of different types of information which are necessary for the description of a work. texts, designs, photos and sounds. In addition, the hypertext information structure allows the direct intervention on analyzed projects, by pointing out the more important themes and their relationships. Users have the opportunity to immerse themselves in hypermedia and choose the subject to navigate through on each occasion. Our research project aims at developing a prototype concerning two architects. I.L.Kahn and F.L. Wright. The development methodology is based on the key role played by the components of architectonic works, thus allowing users to compare them in a simple and correct way. The methodology used in this work can be extended to other architects or periods, by simply changing the possibility of navigation, i.e. by changing the reading keys.
Moore, Richard. "A Proposal for Architecture and Education Communication - the Villa Savoye at Poissy (France)." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 53-58. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The research, carried out in the Faculty of Architecture of Palermo, Rome “La Sapienzai and Rome III, with a wide number of researchers not all tutors, had allowed to verify the physical and architectural peculiarity of the Villa Savoye, from his initial shaping. The computer aid,in the architectural field, seems to allow a new approach to the study of the three-dimensional space and we think, within the paper, to analyze the phases and the methodology of the work.
Millard, Lesley. "A Strategic Approach to Climate Responsive Design Using Computer Based Learning." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 177-182. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Existing computer software to support the teaching of environmental issues to architecture students is mainly based on energy calculation methods or packages of information split into subject areas. Neither approach seems to adequately support the early stages of the design process. The paper explores the construction of a model for a computer based learning system to teach the development of environmental strategies. Different strands of educational theory were used to develop teaching principles based around consideration of the subjective quality of knowledge influenced by ideas and theories from different sources, the importance of learning a “language” consisting of methods and theories of a subject and their application in context and the suggestion that “deep” learning requires conceptual changes. A suitable framework for the development of environmental strategies is suggested and its implementation using multi-media software as a method of integrating different types of information and learning materials is proposed. The paper concludes that the process of analysis is a key part of the system and should be made the focus of the structure and contents. 
Ronchi, Alfredo. "An Hypermedial Object Oriented Approach to Computer Aided Architectural Design." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 375-388. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper presents a new approach to hypermedial computer aided architectural design environments. The concept is to create a whole CAAD hypermedia environment based on object oriented approach. This was probably a dream in the past but new technologies make this possible. To introduce the subject let us think to a system based on an object oriented environment, with hypermedia capabilities and dynamic creation of data structures, all these things may be managed by a single application using OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) technology provided by MS Windows. Some years ago we were waiting for a universal browser able to manage all kind of data and formats such as text, images, movies and sounds. Let us think to an object oriented file system, we can store all objects and save relations amongst them, then we can use a browsing or quering template to read and retrieve data. Three cases of study developed by Diset are discussed in this paper: HyperMedia Design Kit, De Architectura and On Line Architectural Sites Projects.
Colajanni, B, G. Pellitteri, and V. Giacchino. "An Hypertext in Building Rehabilitation: a Case Study in Palermo ." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 29-36. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Hypertext is an ideal tool to teach building design inasmuch as it allows both teacher driven and student self driven learning. It allows to link every type of informations (texts, sounds, images, films) with associative mechanisms much like those utilized by our brain. Hypertextes buikt up for teaching purposen can be usefully employed in professional occurrencies. An example is shown dealing with the rehabilitation of the Fiume torto Palace in the historical centre of Palermo. It manages in a simple but efficient way the many complex interconnections between analysis of the state of decay, history, town planning rules and technology focusing all the information on the rehabilitation task.  
Kulinski, Jaroslaw. "An Inspiring Method of Teaching CAAD Programs." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 267-272. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper tries to describe the actual situation concerning computer use in architectural practice. It tries to trace the roots of the present situation as well as to find a possible alternative. The paper depicts the most common problems arising while getting started the concept work in computer environment. It tries to show how to find the links between human imagination and its expression by means of CAAD software. It outlines a proposal of teaching CAAD programs in the way which would stimulate the useris creativity in the electronic environment.
Brown, Andre, and Michael Knight. "An Integrated Hypermedia Project." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 111-116. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper describes how Hypermedia can be used as unifying tool, marrying together many strands of work related to architectural design and CAD. The project which we describe was undertaken with fourth year students at the University of Liverpool and is entitled the Electronic City. It is founded on the premise of assembling a Hypermedia package which describes the city and its architecture to a lay person. There are two strands to the project, the Hypermedia strand and a graphics/CAD strand. At the end the task was then to stitch the strands together to produce a common, coherent Hypermedia package. At the end of the project we expect that the students will have developed skills and an appreciation of: (-) the architecture and history of the city (-) the design of Hypermedia interfaces (-) the design of Information structures (-) three dimensional modelling and rendering
De Grassi, Mario, and Alberto Giretti. "Applying Formal Methods to Multimedia Design Aid." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 283-296. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. In the last decade we assisted at an evolution of computer aided design systems from drafting, calculation and simulation utilities toward systems able to support the conceptual phase of the design process. Systems supporting conceptual design use knowledge about the design domain and assume a will defined model of the design activity. Their computational framework is usually built by means of a set of representational schemata which lack a formal semantics. This aspect causes a limitation on the applicability of their computational framework to different domains. In this paper we propose a formal knowledge representation language, that has been defined in order to represent the structural relationships of domain knowledge. On the basis of language structure we propose a number of inferences tailored to case-based conceptual design aiding. Finally we apply the representational framework to the implementation of a computational architecture for conceptual design aiding that integrates multimedia representation of design cases with symbolic information processing. The architecture combines a knowledge representation server and a multimedia server. The knowledge representation server processes both domain knowledge and design experiences according to the Case Based Reasoning paradigm. The multimedia server produces the required case representation.
Klercker, Af. "Architects Early Sketching on Computer Using Multimedia." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 247-256. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper presents a development work which aims at practical applications of ideas built on experiences in practise and education and the theoretical development in the BAS.CAAD project. The important difference between BAS.CAAD and CAD programs of today is the possibility to handle user organisation, building design and site in the same program. This means that design today has to be done in at least 3 separate programs with different ways of defining objects. It is then a computer technical problem to mix and study the relations between objects of separate origin. In a recent project our method to overcome this difficulty in CAAD computing was using a Multimedia program making visual simulations to analyse consequences of form etc. As the process went on and forms where more concrete it was possible to make simulations worth showing and discussing to involve colleagues, clients and users.
Jakimowicz, Adam, and Andrzej Kadysz. "Architecture of Many Media (Architecture is Many Media)." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 395-400. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Basis issues concerning media need redefining, because new media should not be perceived and approached according to traditional conventions. Present understanding of a medium as a mean of linear transmission, with the primary role of sender is no more sufficient, is too simple. The possibility of mutual and multidirectional communication in the real time makes the distinction between sender and receiver not so clear. The roles are effacing, but actions, processes are not. When receiver becomes sender, the process of receiving is always distinct from sending. The importance of the process, the attention must move towards a temporal process of transmitting of the receiving. When the process changes, the message (even when “onlyi its form) changes, receiving changes because it is an active action. This paper is the collection of ideas for discussion.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Background Information Systems." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 231-242. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Information systems increasingly appear as core elements of computer-aided architectural design environments. They provide the input and accommodate the output of automated and interactive procedures. The paper proposes the development of architectural information systems as an unobstrusive multimedia infrastructure in the background of specialized programs used for performing specific design t.asks. Background multimedia systems facilitate communication between specialized programs by means of their compound representations. These combine different types of information and provide an overview of the overall system and of the processes implemented in it.
Ekholm, A., S. Fridqvist, and Af Klercker. "BAS.CAAD - Building and User Activity Systems Modelling for Computer-Aided Architectural Design." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 217-230. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. In the early stages of the building design process not only building and site but also user activities and experiences are formed. This paper presents a development programme for CAAD where conceptual models of some fundamental characteristics of building, site and user organisation will be developed and implemented in a prototype CAAD-programme. The models are based both on empirical studies and an ontological Framework which is also used for organising the basic object structure of the prototype CAD program. The architectural design process has several characteristics which a CAAD-programme must support, e.g incremental determination of properties, change of scale and shift of focus. The research investigates how the design object and the user interface can be formed to serve this working method. One important field is to study the usefulness of the user organisation model for the brief and building management stages. The programming work for the prototypes is done with Smalltalk on Macintosh computers. The tests of the prototype includes spatial co-ordination of the three systems.
Cheng, Nancy. "By All Means: Multiple Media in Design Education." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 117-128. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper describes how to combine media to maximize understanding in CAD education. Advantages such as synergistic communication, clarification of common concepts and awareness of media characteristics are illuminated through digital and traditional projects. Learning computer media through communication exercises is discussed with examples from networked collaborations using the World Wide Web. Language teaching shows how to use these exercises to encourage critical thinking in a CAD curriculum.
Mortola, E, A Fortuzzi, and P Mirabelli. "Communications Project of Designing with Multimedia Interactive Tools." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 361-374. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. We at a new step of software where the development of applications is done not using instructions, but composing applications. The software object oriented which allows the integration between applications is the solution for the designer to produce the own software. It is possible to use integrated applications with a limited knowledge of algorithms and programming languages. That allows the not specialized users to use specialized multimedia tools. The consequences of this opportunity can result very important not only for the designer but above all the actors involved in the decision making process. It is hard to evaluate the social weight of hypertexts and hypermedia in the field of social participation to the decision making. However their efficiency in the communication problem it is clear. We can preview that in the next future the use of hypermedia will be more extensive in the field of decision making, which involve public interests. Some hypertext developed in the CAAD Laboratory of the Third University are briefly described.
Fantacone, Enrico. "Computer Aided Energy Conscious Design: the Introduction of Integration Building Design System (I.B.D.S.) in CAAD." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 199-202. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper means to show how important is the introduction of Energy Conscious Design and the integration of it in CAAD Systems. Briefly is reported the State of the art in this sector of Architecture as well as is listed the DGXII activities on improving appropriate research.
Brusasco, Pio, and Luca Caneparo. "Coordinative Model of Design and Building Process." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 297-306. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The paper presents a coordinative model of the design and building process. It is divided into three main sections. The first presents a brief formalization of the model and of its representations, respectively the argumentative, rhetorical and semantic graphs. The second introduces the framework adopted for the development of the model, and describes the two main sub- systems: communicative and coordinative. The third presents the computer implementation, based on the Client,/Client model for the communicative system and on the Client/Server for the coordinative system.
Cantos, Selles, and Mas Llorens. "Digital Modelling Tools at the Design Studio: Methodology." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 61-70. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This research work is being financed by the “Instituto de Ciencias de la Educacion”, I. CE., Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, U.P.V. and currently taking place at the “Taller2” de Proyectos Arquitectdnicos. We have placed CAD systems on drafting tables, so students can learn to apply different media and tools, both digital and traditional, in their design processes. To integrate CAD systems into the design studio we have developed a methodology upon which to relate the “Mechanics of the digital tool,” with the often elusive and seldom explicit, “Mechanics of designing”. We see architectural design as a process that can benefit from the use of computer systems through modelling (representation), and rendering (static or dynamic visualization). Digital modelling tools are powerful instruments to simulate and visualize (perceive) formal and spatial arrangements, under certain conditions of superficial appearance and light. Geometry composition, texture, light projection, rendering and animation, are the keys to understanding a digital modelling system as an extension of our design process. We introduce and explain each one of these categories, as it applies to architectural design and to three dimensional CAD systems. We present samples of student work following this method.
Burattini, Ernesto. "Expert Systems and Hypertext: Can They Work Cooperatively?" In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 315-322. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. In recent years two technologies, hypertext and expert systems, developed independently each other, drawn researcheris attention since they seemed good tools to represent the knowledge and the reasoning process performed by human beings. These two technologies, until recently, had not too much intersection between them notwithstanding both were involved in representing the knowledge of experts of some domains and the domains itself. Also in the architecture field some expert systems and many hypertext products have been developed. Starting from some applications developed by our research team, in terms of expert systems and hypertext, we try here to give some suggestions about the possible interactions and the complementary use we may done of them.
Bottelli, Valeria, and Christian Fogh. "Galathea: a Case-Based Planning Tool for Knowledge Navigation in the Architectural Design Process." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 427-436. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. We report on an on-going Ph.D. research aimed at the analysis of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design and the development of a conceptual model for a case-based navigation tool for its support. We describe architectural design from a process viewpoint and assume it as a form of intentional planning, leading from an initial state configuration toward a desired situation, by means of an incremental specification of goals, constraints and involved variables. We consider the very essence of design and of the specific professional skill characterising designers as the continual recursive transformation of the initial solution model, in order to map the desired state onto the enacted one and the capability to govern a number of continually changing variables in this direction. On the basis of this general concept of the design process, we describe the model of Galathea, a case-based planning tool, aimed at progressively representing the enlarging space of acquired knowledge, and at supporting the designeris central role in the management of the design process.
De Cola, S., R. La Franca, D. Latona, and W. Parlato. "Hypa - an Hypertext System about the Urban Growth of the City of Palermo." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 21-28. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. At the Department of Representation at the University of Palermo an hypertext about the evolution of the city of Palermo has been developed. The system told the events that marked the evolution of the city by images and text. The hypertetx structure allow the reader to paginate the story following different need and/or curiosity. The system is open so it is possible to maintain the data base and to update it with specific contribution (degree thesis or reseurch) or whit the addition of new data related to already developed themes.
Amirante, Isabella, and Antonio Bosco. "Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: an Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 12-Mar. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the “knowledge engineeri as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
Belibani, R., A. Gadola, and A. Marinelli. "Hypervisible Cities: Seville, Barcelona, Lisbon." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 161-168. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The Hypertext ‘HYPERVISIBLE CITIES: SEVILLE, BARCELONA, LISBON’ was realised within the interuniversity scientific research “La Prodazione dei circuiti multimediali didattici per l'architettura e l'urbanistica” (The production of multimedia didactic circuits for architecture and urban planning), co-ordinator Prof Paola Coppola Pignatelli - Dipartimento di Progettozione Architettonica e Urbana - Facolta di Architettura, Universita “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italia. The aim of the research is the representation through the hypermedia tool of the significant of the cities, perceived through their images. The hypertext it has been attempted to make hypervisible three major cities - Seville, Barcelona, Lisbon - through a horizontal/vertical reading, according to three directions of probing, for comparisons purposes among different methods of growth of the city form.
Monedero, Javier, and Ernest Redondo. "Images to Save a River." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 409-416. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The paper presented is based on a work, developed by the authors, which concluded with an exhibition that was inaugurated in Barcelona on the 23th of april, 1995 and will proceed to other places the next year. The work consisted in the organization of an exhibition and the development and visual simulation of 14 projects aimed to promote ways to rescue the Besos river that crosses the north side of Barcelona and is probably one of the most degradated rivers of Europe. Our task was to select and suggest ways of acting on the landscape that could be easily understood and assimilated to a program that implied a complex and long term task. From the technical point of view the job implied particular aspects that are also discussed in the paper.
Achten, Henri, J. Dijkstra, R. Oxman, and Th. Bax. "Knowledge-Based Systems Programming for Knowledge Intensive Teaching." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 139-148. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered us a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge through the medium of Knowledge-Based Systems programming. It demonstrates how Knowledge-Based Systems offer an appropriate structure for analysing the knowledge required to implement typological design. The class consists of third-year undergraduate students with no extensive previous programming experience. The implementation language is AutoLISP which operates in the AutoCAD environment. The building type used in the course is the office building. in order to become acquainted with both building type and programming in AutoLISP, information and instructions have been gathered and pre-structured, including a worked out analysis and AutoLISP code. Office plans are generated through use of the Knowledge-Based System. They are encoded in the form of frames. At the end of the course the students will have learned the basics of Knowledge-Based Systems, have been introduced to programming these systems, have analysed and reflected upon the design process, and gained insight into a specific building type.
Glanville, Ranulph, and Robin Kinnon-Wood. "Learning and Multimedia." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 93-94. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. It is taken as given that the reason for interaction with MultiMedia environments is to learn. Human beings have been claimed to be machines for learning. It therefore follows that understandings about learning (especially in the context of computers) is central to the successful design of MultiMedia environments.
Grant, Michael, and Inga Paterson. "Multimedia - a Multi Purpose Programming Environment." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 183-186. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. In the few short years since the emergence of multimedia programming tools this activity has moved from the periphery of the Information Technologies to the mainstream of computing applications. This is due not only to the progressive development in hardware and software technologies but also to the escalating set of desires of authors and users of multimedia products. Perhaps the most interesting theme within this strand of development is in the progression of the capabilities of the scripting and programming capabilities now on offer. The purpose of this paper is to trace the development of this aspect and speculate on the future of multimedia authoring tools as a new generation programming environment where the distinction between multimedia and CAD becomes less well defined.
Carrara, G., G. Confessore, A. Fioravanti, and G. Novembri. "Multimedia and Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 323-330. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. It appears by now fairly accepted to many researchers in the field of the Computer Aided Architectural Design that the way to realize support tools for these aims is by means of the realization of Knowledge Based Assistants. This kind of computer programs, based on the knowledge engineering, finds their power and efficaciousness by their knowledge base. Nowadays this kind of tools is leaving the research world and it appears evident that the common graphic interfaces and the modalities of dialogue between the architect and the computer, are inadequate to support the exchange of information that the use of these tools requires. The use of the knowledge bases furthermore, presupposes that the conceptual model of the building realized by others, must be made entirely understandable to the architect. The CAAD Laboratory has carried out a system software prototype based on Knowledge Engineering in the field of hospital buildings. In order to overcome the limit of software systems based on usual Knowledge Engineering, by improving architect-computer interaction, at CAAD Lab it is refining building model introducing into the knowledge base two complementary each other methodologies: the conceptual clustering and multimedia technics. This research will make it possible for architects navigate consciously through the domain of the knowledge base already implemented. 
Ponomareva, E, A. Litvinova, and R Kozakova. "Multimedia and Special Architectural Disciplines." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 169-176. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. A person is a wonderful creature. His high organization helps him not only to see and to hear the world around him, but to feel and understand, to condole and pity. A person is a sacramental creature too. His complex organization helps him to see day as light and darkness, as delivery and death, as delight and grief. Every human reaction has biological, physiological and sensitive components. That is why environment is able to call up physical an emotional associations. A human being can “see” sound and “hear” colours. All history of human culture shows that the art can affect man in different ways: unconscious effects, spontaneous associations, general symbolic or specific conventional meanings. That is why architecture can not only protect (a safeguarded aspect), but give knowledge ( an informational aspect) and set up mood (an emotional aspect). And that is why we speak about ambiguity of sense and about multiartistic works. Such as Skriabin's symphony'Prometheus'. Two scores - musical and colouristic - are connected in this masterpiece. Let us look through two architectural disciplines “ from this point of view. The programmes of these disciplines are examples of such embedment. Any architectural discipline demands computer graphics. Any architectural discipline demands multimedia aided teaching, because multimedia in computer designing is a result of human being's complexity and ambivalence.
Coyne, Richard. "Multimedia Metaphors in the Design Studio." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 129-138. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. In this paper I examine some of he ways that multimedia impacts upon the design studio. I show how multimedia affects design products and processes in so far as it is caught up in the metaphors we use in structuring design tasks. But this influence is far from deterministic. Metaphors entail various oppositions, the resolution of which sets the problems for the designer in the particular design situation. The article describes two cases of using multimedia in a design studio teaching situation. The first explores how multimedia brings to light the opposition between the design and the presentation of the design. I explore how students cope with the tensions that arise when using multimedia. The second case study looks at the conventional privileging of the visual over the other senses in architectural design. I describe a design studio in which we deliberately privileged the audile sense over the visual. This was established through the way we set the brief, hut also through the use of multimedia technology. Students used sound recorded from the site in conjunction with MIDI keyboard and sound processing technology to analyse and synthesise sound pertinent to the design of a pavilion at the Circular Quay area on the busy Sydney foreshore. We examine what difference this emphasis upon the audile made to the design process and to the design product, and how multimedia affects design.
Kvan, Thomas. "Multimedia Tools to Support Multilingual Learning: a Multilingual Architectural Lexicon." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 307-314. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. We have been exploiting the capabilities of multimedia tools to combine visual and audio images to create a multilingual reference tool for architecture students. 0ur students work in both Cantonese and English, learning incomplete architectural vocabularies in both languages. We set out to create a tool which can be used by studentis as a reference tool as well as a teaching tool. In response to this need, we have created a multimedia lexicon using three-dimensional models of buildings with which the user can interact, identify elements and hear and see the correct term for the elements identified in the language of their choice. The system can handle any number of language combinations or building models. This paper describes a system currently under development which has gone through two iterations to explore the issues involved.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Multimedia Versus Ugliness of the City." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 389-394. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper presents a method of using multimedia techniques in order to solve problems of visual pollution of city environment. It is our observation that human - inducted degradation of city environmental results not only from neglect and vandalism but also from well - intentioned but inappropriate preservation actions by uninformed designers and local administrations. Very often, a local municipality administration permit to erect an ugly, bad-fitting surroundings houses. It is usually connected with lack of informations about certain areas of a city, its features, characteristic and about present and earlier buildings. Therefore there was an experiment - a complex programme aiding the decision process as a part of the CAMUS system (Computer Aided Management of Urban Structure) which is created at Faculty of Architecture TUB. One of the integral parts of it is a block, which has been called “How would it be like to be nice around”. One of the basic elements of that system is a town data base consisting of the independent knowledge - based systems, working together in a distributed computing environment. City administration will have access to each information from multimedia data-base. Multimedia is also having and impact on the effectiveness of decision process in urban planning and in our fight with ugliness of the city.
Butelski, Kazimierz. "On Similarities between the Conventions of Computer Modelling and the Creation of Architectural Form." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 71-74. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The following remarks relate to the creation of a geometric representation, which determines the future form of a building. I also discuss the relation between the three main conventions of computer modelling: Constructive Solid Geometry, Boundary Representation, Metagraphics and the currently design methods. For the sake of comparison, I selected three contemporary architects, Zaha Hadid, Arata Isozaki and Rob Krier represent mutually opposed, and also strongly ideological currents in todayis architecture, Arata Isozaki occupies the middle ground.
Arlati, Ezio. "Patriarch: a Hypermedia Environment for the Support of Architectural Design." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 187-198. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. This paper reports on current research in the field of architectural design and knowledge- based systems, through the conception and implementation of two software tools operating as a part of an integrated hypermedia environment denominated PatriArch. Main concern of this set of tools operating in PatriArch is the support of design since the very beginning, in that phase of not yet correctly explored or interpretated constraints and of scarcely specified goals, in which an initial solution model - provisionally composed of fragments of supposed fitting ideas - for the design theme has to take place. The creative activity of the designer is assumed as an'intentional planning activity'that represents the acquired level of knowledge of the network of connections defining the nature, function, shape in the space etc. of the increasingly integrated solution-model: the final design will be an evolution of this - and other competitive and concurrent - models. PatriArch is meant to be the environment containing and allowing the representation of this evolution through its ability of linking the fragments of designers'knowledge, supported by an integrated relational data base: Sysinfo. These works were conceived inside an educational software development program for architecture students. 
Asaro, N., R. Corrao, D. Faconti, O. Fiandaca, P. Grifoni, and A. Silvani. "Riesce: an Hypertextual Tool for Browsing Information Produced in the Building Sector by PFEd." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 401-408. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The structure of a set of documents allow for navigation inside single texts. Yet it is often also an obstacle to comparability between different parts and concepts. Even document formatting is only a partial answer to the problem, since it fails to develop the matter of relationships between enunciation and results. It was need to retrieve information about the scientific findings made by Research Units (Operating Units) during the first three year period of the “Progetto Finalizzato Ediliziai (PFEd) for assessment and transfer purposes which led us to design and develop a system to facilitate the retrieval of the relevant information. We chose the building sector for this application because of its relative lack of previous experience of this type, the variety and complexity of documentation available and, last but not least, the general underestimation of research topics and results vis--vis the development of the sector. By making the suggestion and information inherent in its findings more available, in terms of method and ambit, as well as more explicit, the research has already achieved a significant result. In view of the prototype character of the experiment, the information will probably be adopted to produce an hypertext on the final results. 
Bustinza, Jorge, and Antonio Fernandez. "Searching a New Learning Method: Hypermedia System." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 83-92. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The use of computers is commonly available to students of architecture nowadays. They can learn specific packages of software and their application in several fields. Very few concern is given, however to the pedagogic capacity of the use of computers in architecture. They are teaching how to use computers instead of using computers to teach. Interactive multimedia and information highways capabilities are to help to the use of computers not only as productivity tools but as mean of communication and education tools as well.
Caneparo, Luca. "Simulation of Shape, Light, Color and Material in Design." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 417-426. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of simulation in architectural design. The concept of simulation is taken over from physics, where analytical relationships are set up between measured phenomena and mathematical models. Computer visualization applies quantitative models to physical phenomena to simulate analytical aspects, and offers to the designer programs to evaluate, in CAD models, the visual qualities and the numerical quantities of the interactions between shape, light, color and material. Regarding the light-matter simulation, the paper presents recent developments in geometry which make it possible to visualize not only the surface appearance but also the in depth structure of building materials.
Ismail, Ashraf. "Singularity and Pluralism in Multimedia: a Key Theoretical Approach to the Multimodel." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 331-340. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Contemporary multimedia research address the possibilities and consequences of integrating various techniques to produce single user based applications (singularity). There is a need for utilising current multimedia techniques, to explore the potential of multi-models (theoretically) to generate modelling information that could be shared simultaneously. The problems are confined to understanding and managing the issues that influence the so-called “target and product modelsi. This paper introduces and elaborates on such problems. It provides a theoretical and another practical framework, the 3D-CAD Modelling Paradigm, based upon completed results of modelling. There is a suggested evidence that there might be advantages in standardising the process of modelling and knowledge representation. The paper stresses that the composition of a model should differ from another to reflect its unique characteristics (singularity). Though, it is essential that such models should conform and respond to the well defined and shared criteria (pluralism).
Herzog, Marcus, and Christian Kühn. "Technological Issues in Multimedia Applications for Architectural Design Education." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 95-104. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Teaching architecture is not primarily an instructional process but rather a process of interaction and experience. In this context multimedia material can be used to provide an active educational environment where students learn by doing. To yield an effective learning system expertise from various fields have to be combined. This paper emphasizes the technological challenges of multimedia applications in architectural design education. We discuss two research prototype systems and analyze the influence of the underpinning technology on the performance of the overall system design. Finally we give technical requirements that are demanded for next generation systems and propose a framework for concerted research action.
Martens, Bob, A. Voigt, E Schmidinger, and Helena Linzer. "The Effective Use of Multimedia and Telematics in Planning and Design." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 75-82. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Provided multimedia is regarded as the connection of various media for achieving specific goals, the objectives are to he defined very precisely. In architecture, urban and regional planning any confrontation with information in terms of graphics predominantly tends to be represented by visual communication. Thus complex spatial accounts of the facts calling for universally understood representations are conveyed. Despite the fact that presentations have so far mostly appeared as “mixed mediai in computer-assisted spatial planning the initial fascination has somewhat faded away. This contribution is to issue concrete working experience with (inter-) national videoconferences via Internet and distributed modelling. Finally, definite solution approaches for the integration of video-conferencing in a simulation- and computer-assisted planning process utilizing multimedia are demonstrated.
Cicognani, Anna. "The New Challenge of Learning." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 37-42. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The World Wide Web offers us a new way of hunting for information. If we compare Internet to an ocean, “surfingi is perhaps the right word to use for describing this hunting process. The'poweri of the Web lies in its friendly interface and in its potential to provide users with high impact documents, pictures, animation and sound. The hypertext nature of the Web allows us to create an on-going set of links which refer to and connect sites all over the world. Researchers and students can use this tool not only for gathering information, but also for publishing their works and “peeringi with the works of others. The challenge, then, is to generate new interest around getting information. Students seem to have more motivations in learning whilst experimenting. And the Web is a good place to start.
Koszewski, Krzysztof, and Stefan Wrona. "The Role of Multimedia in the Presentation of Students' Designs." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 273-280. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Traditional ways of an aesthetic expression like hand drawing and renderings, painting and artistic graphics, are now enriched by computer multimedia techniques. The multimedia techniques are used in the Department of Architecture of Warsaw University of Technology for presentation of studentis design. The connected media, like computer renderings, animations and sound are used to express sophisticated aesthetics intentions by students in their conceptual designs. In the past two years, three inexpensive multimedia editors were tested on PCis: Tempra Media Author, HSC Interactive and Multimedia Director 4.0. The most convenient, but not excellent, for our purposes was The Tempra Media Author. Several aspects of multimedia presentation were analyzed and some suggestions for the future were done.
Verbeke, Johan, and Stefan Van Acker. "The Use of Computers in Urban Design Projects at Sint-Lucas Brussels-Ghent." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 243-246. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Since a few years we use computers with the specific aim to augment the creative energy in the design studio We discuss the results of an urban design project in which the use of'multi-media'(abstract space model, scanned images, sound, real video and metaphors) was important in order to try to present the concept
Beitia, S.S., Alberto Zulueta, and J. Barrallo. "The Virtual Cathedral - an Essay about CAAD, History and Structure." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 355-360. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The Old Cathedral of Santa Maria in Vitoria is the most representative building of the Gothic style in the Basque Country. Built during the XIV century, it has been closed to the cult in 1994 because of the high risk of collapse that presents its structure. This closure was originated by the structural analysis that was entrusted to the University of the Basque Country in 1992. The topographic works developed in the Cathedral to elaborate the planimetry of the temple revealed that many structural elements of great importance like arches, buttresses and flying buttresses were removed, modified or added along the history of Santa Maria. The first structural analysis made in the church suggested that the huge deformations showed in the resistant elements, specially the piers, were originated by interventions made in the past. A deep historical investigation allowed us to know how the Cathedral was built and the changes executed until our days. With this information, we started the elaboration of a virtual model of the Cathedral of Santa Maria. This model was introduced into a Finite Elements Method system to study the deformations suffered in the church during its construction in the XIV century, and the intervention made later in the XV, XVI and XX centuries. The efficiency of the virtual model simulating the geometry of the Cathedral along history allowed us to detect the cause of the structural damage, that was finally found in many unfortunate interventions along time.
Marinelli, Anna, and Laura Graziano. "Urban Analysis and Hypermedia." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 149-154. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. The structure of major European cities was formed in recent years more by stratification of different patterns, as it seems, than by urban planning. Moreover traditional analytical tools - such as cartography, which defines and symbolizes static data and their spatial connections - are not able to decode any more the image of cities. Modern city means not only static form, as public space is not a simple function. city includes movement, temporary objects, changing perceptions, fluxes. Therefore hypertexts could he a chance of building up and propagate a real knowledge about modern city. an effective action to reach qualification and management of urban spaces through citizens direct involvement in the city construction. A hypertext on the Rome quarter “Esquilino” has been carried out as an open structure, to probe the new representation method trough the construction of the real “image” of the quarter, gathering different information as historical, geographic and socioeconomical data, urban projects, citizens proposals.
Porada, Mikhael. "Visual Thought and Data Visualisation." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 341-346. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. While underlining the importance of the visual approach in the artefacts design a hypothesis is made that computer graphics can he a method that allows to pass from abstract architectural and urban data graphic representation to figurative one. The “Vision” of a three components matrices and the dynamic computer schema can be seen as a possible interface toward the architectural schema.
Dobson, A., Wolfgang Dokonal, and I. Kosco. "World Wide Web Presentation of Collaborative Student Design Work." In Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines: 13th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 105-110. eCAADe: Conferences. Palermo, Italy: Universita di Palermo, 1995. Inspired by presentations made at the last eCAADe conference of collaborative work by students at a number of schools of architecture who were using the Internet as a form of virtual studio, a network for a collaborative design project was set up between the schools of architecture in Bratislava, Graz and Luton. This paper takes the form of a multi-media presentation of the results of this collaborative project, carried out on-line via the World Wide Web site at the University of Technology in Graz. In addition to presenting the design solutions produced during the project, the paper analyses the technical difficulties encountered with file transfers, assesses the participants'experience of using the Internet as a medium for collaboration, evaluates the educational validity of the project and outlines proposals for the future development of collaborative activities by the group.