Keywords Abstract
Ronchi, Alfredo. "A Brief History of CAAD in Italy." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 227. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Twenty years of revolution, from the middle'70 to the middle'90. Many things have changed since the origins of computer graphics and computer aided design in architecture. We started teaching drafting on terminals which connected to mini computers, complex procedures or sets of graphics libraries working with keywords, vectors and storage screens. The next step was devoted to the discovery of workstations in the early'80's, where the user sat face on to the whole power of a multitasking system. At that time to use up to 16 time sharing processes running on the same work station seemed to have no practical use at all. Fortunately someone (ie Xerox PARC laboratories) at the same time started to develop the so-called GUI. Graphical user interface started a revolution in human/machine interface (ie Smalltalk). The desktop metaphor, the use of multiple windows and dialogues joined with icons and pop up menus let the user manage more applications and, even more important, created a standard in application/user interface (CUA). In the meantime focus had moved from hardware to software, systems being chosen from the software running. The true revolution we have seen starting from that base and involving an ever increasing number of users was the birth of PC based applications for CAAD. Generally speaking nowadays there are three main technologies concerning teaching: communication, multimedia and virtual reality. The first is the real base for future revolution. In the recent past we have started to learn how to manage information by computers. Now we can start to communicate and share information all over the world in real time. The new age opened by fax, followed by personal communication systems and networks is the entry point for a real revolution. We can work in the virtual office, meet in virtual space and cooperate in workgroups. ATM and ISDN based teleconferencing will provide a real working tool for many. The ever increasing number of e-mail addresses and network connections is carrying us towards the so called'global village'. The future merger between personal digital assistant and personal communication will be fascinating. Multi & HyperMedia technology is, like a part of VR, a powerful way to share and transfer information in a structured form. We do not need to put things in a serial form removing links because we can transfer knowledge as is. Another interesting and fundamental aspect typical of VR applications is the capability to change cognitive processes from secondary (symbolic - reconstructive) to primary (perceptive - motory). In this way we can learn by direct experience, by experiment as opposed to reading books. All these things will affect not only ways of working but also ways of studying and teaching. Digital communications, multimedia and VR will help students, multimedia titles will provide different kinds of information directly at home using text, images, video clips and sounds. Obviously all those things will not substitute human relationship as a multimedia title does not compete against a book but it helps.
Giangrande, A., A.M. Marinelli, and C. Sansoni. "A CAAD Based Method for Designing Industrial Plants in Sensitive Landscapes." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 75-83. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The protection and management of the visual landscape require new conceptual and operative tools to better link (integrate) the creative and the evaluation phases of the design process. These tools should aid the designer to take into account and evaluate the visual impact of a new project from the early steps of the process: that is the same as saying that we have to upset the logic of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment), a procedure that usually is applied when the project is finished or is coming to an end. This paper illustrates the first results of a research that aims to produce a system to aid the designer of buildings or infrastructures  ? industry plants, transport systems, etc. ?  that could generate a strong impact on the surrounding landscape. To this end we applied some methods and techniques which was worked out in scientific fields that have developed a lot in the late years: MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid) and CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design). The paper describes a software prototype to aid design of industrial installations for the early design phases.
Ward, D., Andre Brown, and F.F. Horton. "A Design Assistant for Environmental Optimisation of Buildings." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 247. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The dual function of the Environmental Design Assistant which we have developed is to act firstly as a teaching aid and secondly as a design aid. In terms of it's role as a design assistant it is similar in nature to the application described by Papamichael, K, in Novitski, B. J. (1993). However, the work described here forms part of an overall strategy to develop a user friendly design assistant across the spectrum of Architectural design disciplines: this is one particular strand of the project. One aim embodied in the development of the environmental design assistant has been the pragmatic one of the production and refining of a tool to perform environmental assessments of buildings in accordance with the British recommendations made in BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Energy Assessment Method). In this respect the assistant allows for the consequences of design decisions to be readily assessed and then for those decisions to be modified. The Assistant has undergone a series of refinements to make it more user-friendly, efficient and appropriate as an Architectural design aid, and this has been the second aim of the project. The project has acted as a vehicle for the application of design principles applied to the presentation, information structuring and navigation associated with Hypermedia and Multimedia products. We are applying the kind of good design principles which have been summarised well by Schulmeister, R. (1994). These principles include Ariadne's Thread (paths for navigation), Lost in Hyperspace (backward navigation), More-than-browsing (interaction) and Tutoring (providing feedback to the user). Adoption of such principles is, we believe, essential in order to realise the potential of Hypermedia tools. The principal development tool for the work has been SuperCard. This has been used in conjunction with a range of other software including ArchiCad and Intellidraw and a range of image grabbing devices.
Bille, Pia. "A Study of Color ." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 185-190. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Color courses are traditionally based on exercises carried out with either water color or colored paper. Use of the computer as a tool for teaching color theory and analyzing color in architecture was the topic of a course given at the School of Architecture and Planning at the State University of New York at Buffalo, USA where I was an exchange faculty in the academic year 1993/94. The course was structured into 3 topics: color theory, color perception and application of color.
Jakimowicz, Adam. "Abstract Modelling - Forming and Exploring." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 214. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Architectural design is always concerned with form to things. It is the sphere or action where meanings are to be expressed and further on - received (by a receiver), felt, understood. “Meanings” mean not only rational information. The matter is to reach the essence and to master ways appropriate to expose and interprete it. Quality of the form decides whether architectural or any work is worth attention or not and to what degree. Form is an attribute of a thing. It is form that “speaks”. This linguistic metaphore shows one of natural, inborn features of things and states. However, questions appear: 1. Does everything have form? 2. Is the form an objective term? 3. What limitations of the definition of the form to accept- if any? The friendly environment for creating form consists of conscious intentions plus open mind. Rules are certain, but liquid. Every formal communication system may be widened individually. The only limitation is to be received according to intentions. So, incredibly, the infinite number of combinations, even within one system, may be possible.
Mori, Stefano, and Edward Ng. "Active Studio v.1.5." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 234. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Four case studies from Active Studio are presented. They are three student projects and a prize winning national competition entry. Being driven by the uniqueness of individual contexts each highlighted a different issue concerning the use of CAD as an image making tool.
Eddison, Tony. "An Investigation of the Concept of Designer Style and its Relevance to the Design of CAD Systems." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 213. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Underlying the notion of style is the basic premise that all designers are not the same and that the manner in which any designer works through a design problem towards a proposed solution may be qualitatively different from other designers. If, through this work, this is shown to be the case and the concept of designer style can be meaningfully discussed then any model of the design process and any system or product relating to this model must allow for such variations at the level of the group or individual. This is the starting point of this investigation of the concept of designer styles.
Porada, Mikhael. "Architectural Briefing Data Representation and Sketch Simulation Computer Environment." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 55-59. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Reflection about the architectural programme starts with the analysis of its writing, its “style” which bears not only the “griffe” of the programmer but as well the structure, methodology, codes of reading, etc. particular to a programming approach. The programme structure corresponds in most cases to the different levels in the text's format and the composition modes of representing data and their relations. The choice made can either facilitate or impede the reading as interpretation of the programme. The programmeris aim should be to open the text to reading towards a “synthetic schematic” summary, a sort of cognitive threshold which allows the reader to understand both the client's objectives and the designer's intentions enhanced by his experience. Articulating a designer's experience means focusing on his knowhow and memory. The designer's recollected knowledge and heuristic approaches to the solution of a basic design problem - types, his readings and spatial evaluations permanently feed the knowhow. It is important for the architect to have access to past examples, to the collective memory of his workplace, and a repertoire of readings, notes, sketches, influences and citations. It is therfore equally important that a computer environment also have a multimodal “architect's memory” or “project memory” module in which different forms of representation are classified, and made accessible as memory components. It is also necessary to have the possibility to access at any moment in an interactive manner to the recomposition, addition and adaptation of these mnemonic components. The information coming from the programme, classified as descriptive, prescriptive and quantitative types of data, must be able to be interrogated in different modes of representation: text, matrices, nets, diagrams, and so on, so that the pertinent information can be extraded at any given design process stage. Analysis of competition programmes show that often the description of an activity, for example, the Great Stadium competition in Paris, is described by several pages of text, a circulation diagram with arrows and legend, a topological proximity diagram with legend and as table activity - areas. These different representations, which are supposed to be complementary and give the most pertinent view of the client needs, show in fact after analysis, many description problems, incoherance, and which result in a reading difficulty.
Bridges, Alan. "Architectural Computing Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 226. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Many papers at previous eCAADe conferences have discussed CAD curricula, but few have questioned the educational objectives of teaching CAD. I wish to use this short paper to discuss not only what should be taught but why and how it should be taught. Topics covered include: styles of teaching and learning, individual or group working, and principles versus practicalities.
Mirabelli, P, A Fortuzzi, J. Petric, and Thomas W. Maver. "Archive of European Architecture: a Proposal for Collaborative Action." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 29-35. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Advances in information technology - particularly in multi media - offer a major challenge to the European Schools of Architecture. This paper proposes a collaborative venture in the compilation of an Interactive Multi-Media Archive of great european Architecture (IMAGE:A). It envisages an agreed specification and common mediums for access to and development of the archive. Discussion of this important initiative will, hopefully, feature throughout the Conference.
Liebich, Thomas. "Behind the Lines - Managing Semantically Rich Data in Architecture." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 253. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Current CAD systems have inherent bottlenecks, which diminish possible achievements for architectural practices. Among these shortcomings there are two the paper will deal with. Firstly, traditional CAD relies on a pure geometric model. All non-geometric information about objects of architectural interest has to be attached to these geometric entities. This restricts the ability to describe semantically dependent relationships. Secondly, the integration of different design tools for building and construction is still at its very beginning. The data exchange remains restricted, since it is based on a fairly low semantic level of a document-based exchange of information, such as geometric representation in DXF or IGES, rather than on a high semantic level of a model-based exchange.
Koutamanis, Alexander, Alan Bridges, and Peter Paul Van Loon. "C-ad hoc Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 39-42. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. In the framework of an evolving curriculum we have been developing a series of CAAD exercises aimed at providing the basic knowledge and skills a student needs. The series formed initially a conventional sequence that mapped design stages and corresponded with the gradual development of knowledge and skills. Due to originally practical reasons we are currently relaxing the sequential structure of the CAAD curriculum. This gives us the opportunity to experiment with the integration of the CAAD exercises in the wider design activities of the students, as well as with the structure of the exercises themselves as fully self-contained units.
Van Acker, S., Johan Verbeke, and J. Verleye. "CAAD Education at Sint-Lucas Brussels-Gent." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 229. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The CAAD group at our Institute decided to use computer and CAAD-software in a creative way. For this reason we choose CAAD-software which is open, flexible and does not impose strict limitations on design exploration. Our primary goal is to investigate the use of the computer in the very first stages of the design process (upstream). Hence we are interested in ways to make CAAD-software more'architect-minded'(i.e. the operational structure should be as close as possible to the thinking of the architect and the logic of the creative design process) such that it stimulates the creativity of the architect. In order to reach these goals, we try to stimulate the reflection of the students about these items.
Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo p, and Antonieta Angulo. "CAAD-CAAI Integration by Means of High-Impact Small-Scale R&D Projects." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 127-134. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Pointing towards the ultimate goal of instrumental integration between our instructional and professional environments, the paper deals with the articulation of small scale R&D projects that, due to their consistency with main-stream tendencies, can have considerable impact on allowing people, institutions and enterprises to perform a relevant role in our dynamics of “Continuing Professional Developmenti and “Practice-Based Learning”. The paper presents the results of a European Union R&D Project that aims to empower small and medium size enterprises of the building sector with the knowledge needed for the development of multimedia programmes with pedagogical value. The paper is explicit on addressing not only the achievements but also the difficulties that the consortium of European partners had to face, and makes reference to a future spin-off project that follows the same tactical approach.
Laing, L., and H. Kraria. "CAD as an Interface for Integrated Collaborative Design." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 235. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. In the traditional approach to building design, the designer (usually the architect) produces a design (often quite detailed)in blueprint before handing this to the next member of the design team (engineer) to superimpose the structure, services etc. Often this proves so impractical that the initial proposal has to be referred back to the architect for revision, and the process repeated - and this cycle may be repeated many times. Such routines arise in building design because designers find collaboration among themselves difficult to control, the task of design integration ultimately falling upon the construction manager or the contractor. This is the most common cause of problems arising during the execution of the project on site, causing a delays in the construction process, and building failures which might only be detected after occupancy. As a test-bed for addressing this problem, a system of coordinated files is proposed for use by design-students (with a working knowledge of AutoCAD) during a design project. The aim is to related data (CAD information) across all students working on the same project but developing different aspects. Participating students will be drawn from a range of design specialisms. Each member accessing the same information while developing different aspects (e.g. structure, services, and cost modelling). This goes beyond the conventional use of'XREF'(cross-referenced drawings) and involves each member accessing and working with the same dataset - e.g. using different layers, co-ordination is easier and the data better integrated - there is thereby a reduction of the amount of repetition as the need to redraw information is eliminated. References or an initial data-set is set up by the tutor and available for reference at any stage of design project. The technological aspects to support collaborative work (and in particular the interaction process in design) is the main thrust of the undergraduate degree in Building Design Engineering at the University of Strathclyde.
Howes, J.. "CAD Education and Practice in the UK." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 261. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. In 1989, the CICA, in collaboration with Peat Marwick Mclintock, surveyed the use of CAD in the top 100 companies in four major sectors of the construction industry.
Kosco, Igor, and Juraj Furdik. "CAD in Slovak Architectural Education and Practice." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 47-51. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. This paper describes experience with Computer Aided Architectural Education and other modern tools such as visualization, animation and multimedia presentation in Slovak architectural education and practice. The process of learning to use these computer tools started, in fact, only five years ago. Today it has become one of the most interesting and powerful areas in education, research and practice.
Kadysz, Andrzej. "CAD the Tool." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 212. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. What is the role of CAAD as a tool of architectural form creation ? We used to over-estimate the role of computer as significant factor of design process. In fact it serves only to produce technical documentation and to visualise designed buildings. We usually use CAAD to record ideas, not to create designs. We use it like more complex pencil. But it is unsuitable for conceptual design, with imperceptible influence on idea definition. Its practical usefulnes is limited. I would like to consider and find out reasons of that state, present some conclusions and ideas on computer aided architectural form creation. Many tools were invented to extend posibilities of human body or intellect. Microscop and telescop are extensions of human eye. Which organ is extended by computer (especially by CAAD)? CAAD with high developed function of visualising of the object beeing designed seems to be an extension of architect's imagination. It is beeing used to foresee visual efects, to check designed forms, to see something what we are not able to imagine. It performes the role of electronic modeler. Real model and virtual model - the medium of presentation is diferent but ways of using them are similar. Dislocation of place where we build model is not a big achievement, but potential possbilities of CAAD in modelling are almost unlimited (?). What are special features of CAAD as a modelling tool? First we have to consider what is indispensible when building a model: to embody idea. To do this we need space, substance and tools. In architectural design practice space is a real site with definite climate, neigbourhood, orientation. Substance that we shape is an archiectural form composed of many difrent elements: walls, windows, roof, entry,..., proportions, rhythm, emotions, impresions... The tool is: our knowledge, imagination, talent, experience, norms, law and drawing equipment. Working with the computer, making virtual model, we have many of mentioned elements given in structure of CAAD program and interpreted by it. But many of them have different character. Making traditional dummy of building we operate on reality which is manually accessible. In case of computer model we operate on information. Space, substance and tool (- program) are informations, data. Human being is not an abstract data processor, but creature that lives non stop in close, direct, sensual contact with nature. By this contact with enviroment collects experiences. Computer can operate on digital data that is optionally selected and given by user, independent upon enviromental conditions. Usually architecture was created on basis of enviroment, climate, gravity. But these do not exist in CAAD programs or exist in the symbolic form. Character of these conditions is not obvious. We can watch demeanour of objects in gravity but it can be also antigravity. In theory of systems everything is considered as a part of biger system. In “virtuali reality (in computer space) we deal with accurences which are reduced to abstract level, free upon terms or connections. We work with our CAAD software using geometric space whithout any other principle. 
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "CAFE: Composition for Architects - Forms and Emotions." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 249. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. In the architectural creation process there has always been an inclination to improve the methods of designing in the way of,,objectivization” of designing process. Objectivization which would explain why we do design in this way and not the other. In spite of the trend to the total objectivization (Vitruvius, Alberti, Palladio), the results appeared to be still subjective, i.e. they included methods of designing typical of the one and only architect. This fact made them completely useless in the designing practice. On the other hand one cannot underestimate their meaning as to this very practice. Because it is just thanks to them that the development of designing studies has taken place. We do learn not only watching works of great architects, but also studying their opinions concerning problems of form, function and construction. That is why it seems to be useful to collect experiences concerning the classic theory of architectural composition, which have been gathered through centuries, as well as to try once again to objectivize the process. Composition information arranged in the form of data-base would create the ground for proper functioning of an expert system uniting diagnostic and planning functions. Study of that kind, not claiming design applications could be an excellent educational equipment in teaching architectural composition. In the proposed teaching system attempts have been made to look at the architectural composition theory in the light of the perception of the form, and - emerging in this process - emotional and aesthetic evaluations. In order to define which evaluations have been most often expressed during the perception process of architectural forms, the students of Architecture Faculty in Bialystok Technical University have been polled on the subject:,,Which words are most commonly used in the descriptions of architecture works?”
Lowe, John. "Computer-Aided-Design in the Studio Setting: a Paradigm Shift in Architectural Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 230. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The introduction of the personal computer in 1982 set forth a revolution that will continue to transform the profession of Architecture. Most architectural practices in America have embraced this revolution realizing the potentials of the computer. However, education seems to have been slower accepting the potentials and challenges of computers. Computer technology will change the design studio setting and therefore the fundamental way architects are educated. The Department of Architecture at Kansas State University has made a commitment to move toward a computer based design studio. In the fall of 1990, discussions began among the faculty to search for the placement of a computer studio within the five year program. Curriculum, staffing, and funding were issues that had to be overcome to make this commitment work. The strategy that was adopted involved placing the computer studio at the fourth year level in phase one. Phase two will progress as more staff are trained on the computer and course work was adapted to accommodate other year levels for a computer based design studios. Funding was a major obstacle. The decision was made to move from a position of being the primary suppliers of computing technology to one of support for student purchased computers. This strategy alleviated the department from maintaining and upgrading the technology. There was great enthusiasm and support from the faculty as a whole for the use of computers in the studio setting. However, the pedagogical impacts of such a change are just beginning to be realized.
Millard, Lesley. "Computer-based Learning and Design - an Educational Approach." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 221. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Current developments of computer based learning systems often approach the problem from a technological point of view of what hardware and software is available and how it can be used. The paper attempts to take the opposite approach and explore the requirements of architectural education and what the attributes of computer based learning should be to support it. Just as the meaning of a word depends on its context within a sentence so the value of a CBL system is dependent on the learning or design context in which it is used and the purpose of a student using the system.
Petrovic, Ivan, and Igor Svetel. "Conversation on Design Action: by Men or by Machines?" In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 15-23. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. A design studio of the future shall be based on dislocated, distributed design services, and feature the “design by collaborationi enabled by the computer transmitted information. However, in a collaborative design process, computer may take an additional role, i.e., as an “ultimately structured dynamic communication medium... based on the notion of commitment and interpretation” (Winograd and Flores 1987). Various models of “intelligenti design systems based on the ideas of “open, distributed, artificial intelligence systems” have shown that the computer-based design agents which act on the object-to-be-designed model could be involved in a “conversation for action” (Winograd and Flores, Ibid.). The aim of the paper is to illustrate a computer-based design system that enables “a-kind-ofi conversations by the design agents before the design decisions were made. After the description of a design experiment and the conversation that went on between the design agents, the traits of the applied “design design system” are discussed.
Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga. "Data for Creation ." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 209. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The need for regional styles to exist in architecture has been broadly and long discussed. In general, regionalisms are socially accepted and they should be employed. Discussions usually become more intensified together with the search for inspiration to create new styles in architecture. In Poland Stanislaw Witkiewicz, arts critic and theoretitian, a painter and a writer, created and developed “the Zakopane style” on the turn of the 19th century. This is the only one architectural style focussed on the regional features that has been preserved until nowadays. It referred both to architecture and industrial forms. It was received by the contemporaries with ambivalent attitude, from the uncritical enthusiasm to emotional negation. One side claimed that the style affected the national consciousness and united the nation without the State. According to the other side, “the Zakopane style”,  when outside the Podhale region, shocked with its non-conformity to the surroundings. About 1910 there was an attempt to create the style not exactly regional but rather national. The designs referred to neoclassic Old Polish mansion house with a porch supported by columns and high mansard roof. Between 1915 and 1918 projects to rebuild the Polish villages and little towns were thrown open to competition. Afterwards, neatly published project catalogues presented universal, all-Polish type of architecture. In 1918, after I World War and after Poland regained independence, whole housing estates were built in manorial style. At the same time the described sets of competition projects were used together with the new ones, prepared by eg. Polish Hygenic Society (1936). All the project proposals show the all-Polish type of regionalism. Another intensification of discussion concerning the regional style is linked with the post-modernist ideas. Modernism-lacking ornament, cosmopolitan, without any homely features (by the way, he is jolly smart who knows what this “homelinessi is all about) despite its undeniable achievements has been finally faced with crushing criticism. Together with this reaction the search for inspiration in regional features of architecture has been revived. But then there has been a lack of Witkiewiczis enthusiasm and stubbornness. We deal with constant attempts to solve the problem of creation in regional style. The situation described allows for the statement that there are two forms of regionalism: one on a narrow, territorial and second on the all-Polish scale. No doubt, “the Zakopane style” was the territorial regionalism, and the manorial architecture-the all-Polish one. The condition and quantity of traditional forms are really varied in Poland. For these still existing objects to serve as “model” and inspiration, they have to be examined, classified and made accessible to the designers. The next step is to extract the most distinct features of sub-regions and to popularize the knowledge of these problems. At the Faculty of Architecture of Bialystok Technical University the relative data base concerning the regional architecture is being created on the basis of Microsoftis ACCESS. It is still another attempt to preserve and uphold the cultural landscape of Poland.
Oxman, Robert, and Jo Mantelers. "Design Education in the Virtual Studio." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 152-160. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The paper presents an approach to the re-orientation of computational studies in support of the didactic role of the design education program. A definition of computational design studies is proposed which identifies the transfer of explicit design knowledge as one of the functions of this academic field. The concept of design knowledge modelling is introduced as an important component of the knowledge formulation role of computational design studies. A current project is discussed which employs knowledge modelling in a VR system to develop an interactive design environment. 
Lenhart, Michael, and Peter Spitzley. "Design Exploration by Media Experimental Methods." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 143-146. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The document is a description of the different phases in design exploration using media experimental methods at the University of Kaiserslautern.
Garcia, F., A. Fernández, and J. Barrallo. "Discovering Fractal Geometry in CAAD." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 69-74. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Fractal geometry provides a powerful tool to explore the world of non-integer dimensions. Very short programs, easily comprehensible, can generate an extensive range of shapes and colors that can help us to understand the world we are living. This shapes are specially interesting in the simulation of plants, mountains, clouds and any kind of landscape, from deserts to rain-forests. The environment design, aleatory or conditioned, is one of the most important contributions of fractal geometry to CAAD. On a small scale, the design of fractal textures makes possible the simulation, in a very concise way, of wood, vegetation, water, minerals and a long list of materials very useful in photorealistic modelling.
Glennie, William. "Europe '94 - a Visitor's Report on the State of CAAD in Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 262. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. During May, June and July of this year, I had the pleasure of visiting twelve institutions across Europe where computers are being used in the teaching of Architecture. There are as many different approaches to the incorporation of computers in the curriculum as there are places, and they all have some degree of success. My greatest surprise was the large size of these Schools, even in relatively small countries. Dealing with a huge number of students makes any kind of mandatory computer instruction almost impossible. In spite of all difficulties, enthusiasm and willingness to work directly with students was the single most important characteristic in the faculty and staff who are having the greatest success. Support staff dedicated to the maintenance of equipment and software were provided at most of the institutions. For those who do not have this benefit it is critical to relieve the teaching and research faculty of the need for these time-consuming tasks. Formal research activities are not essential to effective education. The process of setting up such efforts is again a distraction from the more important job of teaching. If research projects grow naturally out of the curriculum, they may be pursued without impeding instruction. Most serious of all, there is a substantial lack of communication and cooperation among these schools, and by implication, among all of the other schools in Europe. The mechanism of annual conferences held by ECAADE is insufficient to exchange information and interests. There were several occasions when I mentioned work that was being carried out at one place that would match very nicely with efforts at another. However, it is clearly impossible for any one school to spearhead this kind of collection and coordination of activities. The only appropriate organisation for this kind of exchange would be a centralised service initiated and maintained by the European Community. It is very important that such a body does not attempt to limit or direct the work of individual schools, rather simply serves as a clearinghouse through which the various groups can benefit from each other's work, to the mutual benefit of all.
Fantacone, Enrico. "Exporting CAD Teaching into Developing Countries." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 222. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. In 1986 the Faculty of Architecture was established in Maputo. It is financed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and managed by a Scientific Council of the Faculty of Architecture of “Universit La Sapienza” of Rome. The need to create human technical resources beeing able to work profesionally as soon as they finish their studies, made the teaching basis for lab exercises and design. The new architects (the first six students graduated in 1991), need to design and make very important decisions without any control by more experienced local technical institutions. The creation of a CAAD laboratory, and the teaching of information technologies and metodologies in architectural designing aimes to achieve a double goal: (-) to make the new architects able to manage on their own, because of the lack of qualified human resources, large quantity of data, and difficult design problems, (-) to make University, the most important scientific center in the country, an information exchange center between developped countries, and Moçambique.
De Mesa, A., J. Monedero, E. Redondo, and J. Regot. "From Image Space to Model Space and Back Again." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 60-68. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The paper describes in detail a process of work consisting of merging a virtual model into a real image. This process implies three different kinds of operations: geometric restoration of the real scene, in 3D, from a photograph, rendering a virtual model under similar conditions as the photograph, and merging of the rendered image with the original image. The paper empasises quality and visual precision of results together with a semiautomatization of the entire process. It also refers critically these three different groups of operations to their theoretical background. It concludes with an evaluation of the work from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of a general design methodology.
Cajati, Claudio. "From Real to Virtual Building Behaviours: “Expert Hypertexts” in the Design Studio." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 243. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Starting from the refuse of the most impressive, on fashion performances of the so called Virtual Reality, I hypothize for the architectural education of the next decade a strategy based on the following scenario: ()- as regards the form of the virtual studio, it should result from the synergy of many moments and opportunities: telematic interaction, students working at home, students training through assistant design tools in the university venue, with or without teachersi supervision, informal discussion teachers-students about such training, traditional teachersi lectures as introductions or resumes, (-) as regards the function of the virtual studio, it should realize the awareness of building behaviours, by teaching architectural design through the critical analysis of positive and - even more important - negative “precedents”.
Szalapaj, Peter, and Songlan Tang. "Giving Colour to Contextual Hypermedia." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 191-200. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Design development evolves within design contexts that require expression as much as the design itself, and these contexts often constrain any presentation in ways that are not usually explicitly thought of. The context of a design object will therefore influence the conceptual ways of thinking about and presenting this object. Support in hypermedia applications for the expression of the colour context, therefore, should be based upon sound theoretical principles to ensure the effective communication of design ideas. Johannes Itten has postulated seven ways to communicate visual information by means of colour contrast effects, each of which is unique in character, artistic value, and symbolic effect. Of these seven contrasting effects, three are in terms of the nature of colour itself: hue, brightness, and saturation. Although conventional computer graphics applications support the application of these colour properties to discrete shapes, they give no analysis of contrasting colour relationships between shapes. The proposed system attempts to overcome this deficiency. The remaining four contrast effects concern human psychology and psychophysics, and are not supported at all in computer graphics applications. These include the cold-warm contrast, simultaneous contrast, complementary contrast, and the contrast of extension. Although contrast effects are divided into the above seven aspects, they are also related to one another. Thus, when the hue contrast works, the light-dark contrast and cold-warm contrast must work at the same time. Computational support for these colour effects form the focus of this paper.
Cabellos, C., A. Casaus, J. Fargas, M. Mas, P. Papazian, and J. Roses. "Heterogeneous, Distributed, Collaborative: the Li-Long Virtual Design Studio." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 175-182. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. This paper describes the Li-Long Virtual Design Studio, which involved six universities in three countries, collaborating in a distributed asynchronous manner on a two-week design exercise. We give an account of the technical, methodological and design aspects of the exercise, concentrating on the perspective of the Barcelona node, and evaluating some of the technical tools used in the studio.
Brown, Paul. "Hype, Hope and Cyberspace -or- Paradigms Lost Pedagogical Problems at the Digital Frontier." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 12-Jul. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. A number of critical issues and problems have evolved over the past 20 years as computers have been introduced into the art and design curriculum. This essay compares the pragmatic demands of tool usage and the metaphorical emulation of traditional media with the need for examination of fundamental issues.
Lentz, Uffe. "Interface." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 24-28. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Todays high tech products don't expose their content or way of peration by their form. Interface design is a new disciplin that deals with the problem of how to explain the operation and potential of an object to the user. The paper discusses interface design and argues that it will become an important extension of the architects traditional tasks.
Campioli, Andrea, and Cinzia Talamo. "IPERTEC: Hypertext Information System for Dry-assembled Building Elements." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 239. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The experience presented concerns the study of advanced information tools for design disciplines teaching. The objectives pursued are: on one hand self-teaching according to methods that go beyond traditional technical manuals and specialized texts and that give a systemic view of the strict connections between technological culture and design poetics, on the other hand assistance during design exercises as far as references assumption and deep analysis of technical and architectural topics are concerned. The result of the research is the information system Ipertec, a hypertext handbook with didactic purposes allowing students to approach executive techniques of dry assembly. 
Fioravanti, A., L. Le Rose, and Sgueglia Marra. "KAAD: a Didactical Experience." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 257. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Students in the last year of their course in Building Engineering in the “La Sapienza” University of Rome study questions of architectural design of considerable complexity, since they are characterised by a marked degree of multi-disciplinary work. In the preceding years, the students acquire specialist notions in the fields of thermal behaviour of buildings, technological equipment, static security, architectural composition, programming and costs, technical and constructional details, and so on. However, there is a need for integration at design level of the disciplines learned. At the CAAD Laboratory of the Department of Technical Architecture and Town-planning Technique, with the contribution of the National Research Council, a software known as KAAD (Knowledge-based Assistant for Architectural Design) has been devised, with the aim of providing an effective aid to the activity of design.
Van Grootel, Marc. "LAVA - a Virtual Studio on the Internet." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 168-174. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The Lab for Architecture is an Internet based information service for Architecture. It was initiated by students of The University of Technology in Eindhoven in 1993. LAVA has three important objectives. 1) Providing pointers to interesting information about architecture. 2) Providing new information to the Internet, for example: student projects, discussions, faculty research and course material. 3) Exploring the possibilities of network-based media by initiating special projects, for example cooperationis between different Universities. The last part of this paper tries to indicate some of the possible influences network-based media can have on education.
Fuchs, Wladyslaw, and Stefan Wrona. "Looking for the Best Place for Computer Models in Architectural Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 43-46. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. In the past, many Schools of Architecture were mastering skill of preparing hand made models and hand drawings as a main technique in design education (e.g. Warsaw School of Architecture). Introduction of CAAD to teaching process brings a new modelling techniques and a new possibilities. The role of computer models in architectural education is very promissing and still not fully recognized. Development of modelling techniques and communication media is much quicker than development of design studio concepts. Many concepts and experiments in this field had place in architectural schools all over the word. A new concept of design studio based on computer modelling techniques as a communication media is the subject of interest of the Warsaw School of Architecture. The virtuality versus reality in teaching concepts is one of the most important issues in our traditional, professionaly oriented school.
Yakubu, G.S.. "Maximising the Benefits of CAD Systems in Architectural Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 228. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The positive impact of Computer Aided Design (CAD) in professional architectural practice has been in focus in recent times but relatively little has been written on its significance in the education of the contemporary architect. It is common knowledge that the profession of architecture is currently undergoing enormous strains as it battles to keep abreast of trends and developments in a period of series of rapid advancement in science, technology and management (RIBA, 1992). Whilst attempts are being made to redress the shortcomings of the profession in the above context, the requirements for architectural education are yet to forge a coherent strategy for the implementation of CAD/IT in the curriculum of schools of architecture. In almost every other field, including engineering, medicine and the humanities, computing application to problem-solving and decision-making is seen as a way forward as we move into 21st century. Architectural education must integrate CAD/IT into the teaching of core modules that give the architect distinctive competence: studio design. That is one of the best ways of doing justice to the education of the architect of today and the future. Some approaches to the teaching of CAD in schools of architecture have been touched upon in the recent past. Building upon this background as well as an understanding of the nature of design teaching/learning, this paper examines ways of maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education and of bringing computer aided designing into the studio not only to enhance design thinking and creativity but also to support interactive processes. In order to maximise or optimise any function, one approach is to use the hard systems methodology which utilises analytic, analogic and iconic models to show the effect of those factors which are significant for the purposes being considered. The other approach is to use the soft systems methodology in which the analysis encompasses the concept of a human activity system as a means of improving a situation. The use of soft systems methodology is considered more appropriate for dealing with the problem of design which is characterised by a flux of interacting events and ideas that unroll through time. The paper concludes that the main impediment to maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education is not only the inappropriate definition of the objectives for the implementation of CAD education but also that the control subsystems are usually ill-structured and relatively poorly defined. Schools must attempt to define a coherent and consistent policy on the use of CAD systems as an integral part of studio design and evolve an in-house strategic and operational controls that enable the set objectives to be met. Furthermore, it is necessary to support the high level of productivity from CAD systems with a more efficient management system, especially in dealing with communication, data sharing via relational database, co-ordination and integration. Finally, the use of soft systems methodology is recommended as the way forward to optimising CAD systems in design education as it would provide continuous improvements while maintaining their productive value.
Marinelli, A.M., R. Belibani, and A. Gadola. "Multimedia in Communication: a Study on the Urban Image of Barcelona." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 103-107. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The Hypertext on Barcelona was realized within the interuniversity scientific research “La Produzione dei circuiti multimediali didattici per l'architettura e l'urbanistica” (The production of multimedia didactic circuits for architecture and urban planning), coordinator Prof. Paola Coppola Pignatelli - Dipartimento di Progettazione Architettonica e Urbana - Facoltà di Architettura, Universit “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italia. During the numerous debates on the relationship between multimedia and communication of the project a long list of problems emerged: the understanding and the management of explorable fields opened by these new media, the informative overflow that can introduce irrelevant information, the “interactive” anxiousness that produces a continuous jumping from one theme to another without any understanding, the identification of the right contents of a multimedia product, that requires an elaborate culture of media languages, the education of the users on new models of learning. From the debates emerged in short a principal point: the necessity to study and to experiment a “multimedia tool” able of transmitting knowledge not through a simple sum of data but through a group of information. If every single tool has -its own characteristics and if the combinations are not automatic, then the modes and contents should be examined. Is it possible therefore to invent a strategy of communication?
Lentz, Uffe. "New Tools: New Architecture." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 217. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Our young students have no strong bindings to the tools and methods of our profession. With their open-minded access to the media, they often try to do things, which are surprising and new. Things which would have been impossible to think of without a computer. They are inspired of apparently unknown design-options, which they find in CAD-tools, or they are exploring possibilities in'strange'combinations of media, not unknown from Television-commercials and music-videos. This Blitz-session will show some students'projects in a very short while. The common thing is, that the students have broken rules, that the teacher never realised were rules, because of his (my) traditional education. One student uses a solid modelling -tool for inspiration, - another uses an auto-tracing tool to generate the concept - and a group of students used a combination of video, grabbing and 3D-modelling to generate new architecture.  
Sabater, Txatxo, and Albert Gassull. "On Digital Press." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 121-126. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Our contribution paper is divided in two parts, the first one is about our experience in building up a CD ROM on Cerda's theory, and the second is a daring -corresponding to our ignorance-, is a suggestion. To publish on a digital support it is necessary to clear one's mind. On Production. The nature of the documents, its origin. Order and division of labour. Some notes about the way to produce it. General documentation management. On critical paths. Digital Press. Towards an ECAADE Digital Press? 
Kühn, Christian, and Marcus Herzog. "On the Role of Hypermedia in Architectural Design Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 115-120. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Teaching architectural design is not primarily concerned with presenting a body of knowledge analytically, but rather with influencing the way students act in a design situation. Previous design cases play an important part in this process, as they provide students with sets of objectives and corresponding solution patterns. Nevertheless, one of the main problems with using precedents in the design studio is that students take them rather as models to be copied than as starting points for their own research. To overcome this problem, the representation of design cases has to be improved. Our thesis is that in architectural design the structure of a case base of design precedents relies to a large extent on the various, and often conflicting, interpretations of precedents that are provided by architectural theory and discourse. Within a theory of design where exploration is the dominant strategy, we propose a method of using design cases and design theories in an integrated way. Through the use of hypermedia as a medium for representation of design cases, the process of looking for information can be based on the same metaphor as the design process itself.
Sasada, Tsuyoshi. "Open Design Environment and Collaborative Design." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 6-Mar. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. OpenDesignEnvironment is a concept of a design environment for environmental design. At the same time, OpenDesignEnvironment is a system which was build according to that concept. It uses 3-D models and computer graphics as a communication medium, and aims to make a design process open to the people who are concerned with a design project. OpenDesignEnvironment was used in practical environmental design projects, and worked as presentation tools, design review tools, and design tools. Furthermore, OpenDesignEnvironment is going to be an environment for collaborative design. 
Sadowski, Michal. "Protection and Conservation of Monuments Supported by GIS." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 240. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The issue of monument protection and conservation not incidentally has become a part of the scope of interests of the Center for Computer Aided Architectural Design. As a research-educational division of the School of Architecture, Warsaw University of Technology, we are a partner providing advisory and implementation services. Employment of a large computer system such as Intergraph's MGE will constitute a considerable improvement for Conservation Offices in the introduction, storage, updating and accessibility of historical maps, photographs, information about information, geological and topological, network, roads, sites, CAD drawings and 3D models. Another important effect will be that of setting a direction for activities of other offices interested in increasing their work efficiency through computerization.
Kokosalakis, Jen. "Recent Developments Using ArchiCAD in Education: LJMU experience ." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 224. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The teaching forum: Based on the CAD Suite for Division of Arts & Professional Studies Emphasis here is on teaching of formal class groups, demos from the Mac with OHP interface display panel usually with DTP hand outs, programmed in with project themes. eg. Attributes of materials - rendering transparency, reflection & shadow casting features timed for the Clay and Glass Design project. CONS - More able students tend to be held up by the slower ones. Some students rush ahead using the hand outs and get out of sync with the rest.
Glanville, Ranulph. "Remoteness and the Value of Sharing." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 210. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The technology of the near future creates the possibility of the Virtual Studio. The Virtual Studio emphasises the importance of sharing (co-operative working, interaction, updating: the importance of “betweennessi). It also emphasises the means by which we create the Virtual Studio and its intersection with what we normally call “reality”. And the means by which we share.
Murison, Alison, and James Gray. "Spatial Analysis for Museum Design." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 201-206. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994.

The paper describes how a specially written customisation of AutoCAD enables students of Architecture to use the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Professor Bill Hillier of the Bartlett School of Architecture, London, to examine a number of existing museums, to compare the findings against other criteria, and to draw conclusions about the strategy adopted in museum design. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that they may be evaluated during the design process, with decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process.

Ismail, Ashraf. "Strategic CAAD Modelling: the Misconception." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 255. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The emphasise is on the common misconception in CAAD modelling. It is a theoretical and practical problem that undermines the process of design and progress, which often influences or decides the form of 2D-CAD drawings and 3D-CAD Modelling. 
Graziano, Laura, and Elena Mortola. "Strategic Choices for Venice." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 90-99. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The Venice has been in the middle of a lot of proposals and initiatives for some time that range from environmental restoration to the transformation of important areas of the ancient centre, from the renewal of the exibition spaces to the rationalisation of manufacturing areas and communications. Opinions as to how, where and whether to go ahead with these interventions are controversal and and they has been responsable for the current situation of status quo in Venice. Various proposals have been put foreword to semplify city control regulations to put into actions quickly and efficiently in the complicated context. Such methods supported by multimedia tools can efford the participation of the actors and the decision making. Application the Strategic Choice approach for the curring out of the projects proposed for the metropolitan area of Venice and the use of multimedia tools (visualisation and hypertext) to favour the involvement of the actors are described.
Koutamanis, Alexander. "Sun and Time in the Built Environment." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 248. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. At a time when requirements on the quality of the built environment are increasingly becoming explicit and specific, computer technology promises the ability to analyse and evaluate buildings during the design process. The computer can extract the necessary information from conventional geometric representations, generate comprehensive descriptions of the aspects to be analysed and use these to arrive at precise and accurate results that can be represented visually. Visual representations facilitate comprehension of the analyses and of their results because of their agreement with our predominantly visual perception of the built environment. The consequent close correspondences between geometric design representations and the visual representation of analyses and evaluations allow direct correlation of the results with the design as a whole. Such correlation is instrumental for imposing explicit and justifiable constraints on the further development of a design. One good example of visual analyses is daylighting. In many drafting and modelling programs a viewing point can be set on the basis the sunis height and azimuth. The projection returned reveals the surfaces that are directly lit by the sun. In other programs the sunis height and azimuth can be used to position a light source with parallel rays. This source gives rise to shading and shadows that correspond to the ones produced by the sun. In addition, several programs can calculate the position of the sun and hence the viewing point or the light source on the basis of the date, the time and the geographic coordinates of the place. The availability of computer-aided daylighting analysis has obvious advantages for practice. Efficiency and reliability of the analysis increase, while flexibility is superior to analog simulations. Unfortunately automation of daylighting analysis may also impede understanding of underlying principles, that is, of the issues at the focus of architectural education. Explaining how the analysis is performed and why becomes thus a necessity for computer-aided design education. Exercises that aim at more than just learning and using a computer program can enrich the studentis understanding of the analysis and its results. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer facilitate the study of aspects such as the comparison of local apparent time, local mean time, standard time and daylight saving time and their significance for daylighting, solar heating and cooling patterns and possibilities. Sundials with their explicit correspondence to solar movement can be instrumental in this respect. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer also support the investigation of the techniques by which the daylighting analysis is performed and explain the relationships between projective theory, sciagraphy and computer graphics. A better understanding of the principles and techniques for daylighting analysis has a generally positive influence on the studentsi learning of the daylighting analysis software and more significantly on their correlation of daylighting constraints with their designs. This leads in turn to increased flexibility and adaptability of the designs with respect to daylighting and to a conscious and meaningful exploration of variations and alternative solutions.
Lyons, Arthur, and Charles Doidge. "The Animation of Dynamic Architecture." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 233. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The most valuable resource in education is student time and the greatest asset is the ingenuity of student minds. CAD technology now offers enormous potential to education, but limitations in time and funding, prevent its use to the extent possible within practice. Therefore, after dealing with'awareness','attitude'and'limited applications', our most important role in education is to encourage innovation. The third year of the honours option course at De Montfort University takes this as its theme and challenges students to explore and exploit innovative applications. One particular area of development has been exploring the dynamic aspects of architectural design which go much further than the well-established'fly-through'sequences. A great deal of architectural design and design development depends upon dynamic issues which range from movement joints to construction sequence. A visual understanding of these dynamic issues drawn from appropriate computer animations can now be an effective factor in design.
Fernández, A., J. Bustinza, and E. Aranda. "The Electronic Aleph: Borges on the Virtual Studio." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 216. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Current design process and communication in architecture are being challenged by the use of computing techniques.
Ng, Edward, and Stefano Mori. "The Electronic Hartlib Project." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 108-114. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. One of the many criticisms of early efforts in multimedia based teaching, learning and information systems is that most of the development is focused on constructing closed systems, and that once they are completed, altering their content, especially by third party users, is next to impossible. This leads to two problems. Firstly, in the current funding environment, it is almost impossible to sustain the system. Secondly, the system thereby developed is not very flexible and hence can be difficult to use. In Sheffield, we are trying to address this problem by constructing an open system. Using an interface-less data structuring system, an object oriented technique has been developed to separate the interface from the generic files thereby allowing unlimited posthumous alteration and adaptation. A prototype has been developed in Hypercard and in Director, but the beauty of the system is that it can be adapted to run on almost anything.
Gavin, Lesley. "The Integrated Teaching of CAAD in the School of Architecture at the Robert Gordon University." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 223. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. This paper discusses how the introduction to computers in architecture being integrated into the design studio can create a stimulating environment for the understanding of the fundamentals of computer aided design.
Linzer, Helena, Bob Martens, and A. Voigt. "The Integration of Virtual and Full-Scale Modelling." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 147-151. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Practically every design- and planning activity aims at its ultimate realization in the built environment. Any respective decisions are generally taken on the basis of substitutes of the original. Yet, the true spatial dimensions and proportions can be conceived on a 1:1 scale “without any mental detour”. Moreover, the interaction of light, colour and material is best represented in the 1:1 model. One of the main reasons why physical 1:1 models are rarely constructed is certainly the unbalanced economic relation between expenditure and resulting use. Therefore, representation by means of less expensive virtual models has taken a preeminent position. However, a balanced combination of physical and virtual models in full-scale according to area- and problem-type, degree of details and scale is likely to become increasingly important in the future. It is not the aim of Simulation Aided Architectural Design (SAAD) and Simulation Aided City Development (SACD) to do completely away with existing working procedures and planning techniques, but to act supplements promoting the integration of traditional and new simulation techniques by an-ticipating “realitiesi aimed at the best-suited design of a common living space. Furthermore, the generation of visions and utopian schemes may add to an enhancement as far as spatial development and design are regarded within the issue of falsification and verification of spatial developments.
Donath, Dirk. "The Reflection of Research in Education CAAD." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 256. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. More and more the education of CAAD has a fixed place in teaching architecture and urban planning students. In this point of view, the influence of research in this field is necessary for a good and high qualitative level of lectures using computer tools.
Yakeley, Megan, and Paul Coates. "The Virtual Ching's Head." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 225. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The bar in the Architectural Association, named after the bust that sat in one corner, had white formica topped tables. Each day around lunchtime these were cleaned with Vim by the bar staff, ready for the new dayis thoughtis, ideas, and occasional inspirations. Students used the bar as an ideal place to discuss their work, the table tops providing an endless supply of virtual napkins waiting not to be used but to be drawn on. This atmosphere of providing a relaxed environment to discuss and debate architectural ideas proved immensly popular, with tea spills adding to the table top sketches. It is often forgotten in the ordered cleanliness of the CAD studio, where the protection of the computers overrides the comfort of their users, that ideas and their development do not always come when we most expect. Providing an atmosphere in which the designer feels comfortable enough to play is as vital now as at the time when the Architectural Association was seen as an ideal place to foster debate. As the architect feels more comfortable, so will the ideas flow more freely. This paper demonstrates how a CAD environment can become the virtual equivalent of a coffee bar as it relates to the design studio, where ideas are thrown around with abandon, and where the discussion of those ideas is more important than the material with which the ideas are depicted. In contrast, the use of computers in design is following along the same path as beautifully descriptive artwork or highly skillful technical drawings, that say much about the presentation abilities of their authors, yet often little about the actual designs. Designers often are so seduced by the medium that they do not properly see the message. A computeris ability to present three dimesnional form instantly, and the ease with which those forms may be altered, stretched, shrunk, reversed and so on make the computer an ideal sketching tool. This paper shows the results of the combined RIBA Part II and MSc Computing and Design course. This two year, 96 week course is entirely computer based, and uses generative modelling to explore the fundamental nature of the design of form. This paper seeks to show how this approach may be successfully used with some students, and how the approach complements existing teaching methods and techniques. To accompany these notes a computer based presentation will illustrate a variety of past and present student work. This will show how rule based form, and the use of computers as a sketching tool, has influenced the students'working methods and their approach to the creation of form. Finally, we will show that the use of such a formal approach leads inevitably to a greater understanding of, and therefore a greater ability to articulate and illustrate, a studentis own design ideas and proposals. The use of the computer at every stage of the design process forces the student to be entirely explicit about every action as it occurs. Similarly the rule based approach requires them to be explicit about actions they propose to take in the future. This double combination has produced students who are highly articulate about their designs at every stage, and this paper aims to demonstrate that the more articulate the student, the greater is the possibility for success.
Sanseverino, Carlo. "The Virtual Laboratory: a New Environment for Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 218. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. When an Information Laboratory (IL) is designed there are some questions that need to be answered: they concern, for example, the equipment (hardware, operation systems, software...), methodologies (self-education, aided practice, integration between traditional methodologies and new equipment...) and disciplinary contents to tranfert into a Computer Aided Education laboratory. In consideration of the fact that it appears absolutely necessary to assume equipment and organization together a research is being developed about both the logistic configuration of educational environments and the methodology for education by information medium.
Kim, Inhan. "Unified Data Organization and Management in an Integrated Design Environment." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 254. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. The architectural design process is very complex and it is not easily confined to a single design environment. As the design process gets more complex due to the technological advances in building materials and construction methods, an integrated design system becomes a central design issue. To have an integrated design system, all applications should be integrated in a unified environment within which there should be a data structure to facilitate an effective data communication among the various design stages and data control facility to seamlessly connect all these applications. A primary purpose of this work is to suggest an object oriented architectural design environment for the essential part of the seamless environment for designing a building. Within the object-oriented design environment, a unified data model and detailed data control module have been implemented to seamlessly connect all these applications. The unified data model organizes the structure of the design data to keep the design consistent throughout the design and construction process. It also helps to do effective data communication among the various design stages to ensure quality and time saving in the final construction of the building. The data management module supports the consistent and easy mechanisms in controlling the data representation through the inter-connected modules. It is also responsible for creating, maintaining, and viewing a consistent database of the design description. In the suggested design environment, each architectural element partially describes the model and individual elements are aggregated hierarchically. Some parts of the projection are defined and other can be inherited from above. Also, creation of an improved or new design element can easily be accommodated in the environment. The integrated database in the suggested environment is the basis by which design data can be shared among the design tools of the design environment. The database organizes the design description within each representation, correlates equivalent descriptions across the representations, and attempts to maintain these correspondences as the design incrementally evolves.
Gatermann, Harald. "Using Hypermedia as a Teaching Tool in CAD Education." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 211. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. CAD-programs belong to the most complex kinds of software - complex and difficult in using and especially in learning for architects and for students. Some years ago we already tried to find ways for making the first steps easier for students and more comfortable for teachers: Our first attempt was to reduce the number of commands from 150 to only 20 in the first lesson by cutting off many of the pull-down-menus (it was even the time before the cad-program, we use, was running under windows). We supported the reduced menus on the screen by handing out a template with all the needed commands for the first lesson. We had two positive results: the first was a reduction of beginners frustrations about too many new things, the second was a homogenisation among the studentsi know how: the very eager ones were no longer able to test too many new things! In the second lesson the students got another twenty new commands and so on (they could start the program with a batch rib-1, rib-2 etc.). Our second attempt was the development of new dialogues due to our experience in teaching and in looking at the same points of difficulties every year. 
Szovenyi-Lux, Miklos. "Virtual Future!?" In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 215. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. Architecture was born long, long ago with the help of those people who first realised that they are not only building houses but, what is more important, thrilling and has been the focus of many debates, creating space. In the beginning man created space by adding and combining different volumes of masses. They thought that space can be perceived as determined by different points of orientation placed around us. Later people started to realise that perception of space is a little bit more sophisticated. Perhaps everybody has smiled at a baby who standing up for the first time in his life in his playpen, extending his hands towards objects on the nearby table physically unreachable for him. If he was an adult, people would think perhaps something is wrong with him, when he extends his hands towards things we surely know are impossible to reach from his actual position. So how come we can judge with exactitude the place of different objects in space? Maybe by the time needed for the movement to get there. Let us not forget that the baby's first real movement is when he starts to walk and then he starts to get the feeling of this three dimensional world, around which can be only realised simultaneously in space and time. Anyone can say that this is an interesting theory, but who cares? It is said that most of the architects, who are real designers have a keen sense of creating and perceiving space. They are far more interested in the perfection of the created space with all its details than anything else. And here is where a CAD program can come into the picture. Talking about a real CAD program that means from the point of view of a designer, a silent friend who never cheats or boasts, who takes him in SPACE wherever he wants to go and shows him his CREATION as an extending arm between his imagination and the reality.
Smeltzer, Geert. "Virtual Reality in Architecture." In The Virtual Studio: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design, 244. eCAADe: Conferences. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde, 1994. This short presentation will describe the application of a Virtual Reality system for the architectural design process. This is based on the results of research into 6 technology and in particular on the possibilities of a natural interface between a designer and a design system. This description is also based on the development of a laboratory setup for a “fully immersive” (all-round representation) and a “partially immersive” (stereo representation) 6 application. This application offers a designer the possibility of modify-ing and assessing a 3D design model in “Virtual Realityi This presentation is mainly based on the use of Virtual Reality in the course of several case studies. One of these case studies was the making of a presenta-tion of a design to possibly interested parties. The other case study was the use of Virtual Reality in the course of a design process. Finally this publication includes the description of some future and anticipated developments. The research problem is mainly posed by the questions regarding the ways in which the design process changes under the influence of, amongst other factors, the 6 technology. Other questions concern the ways in which the interface between a designer and a design system can be made as natural as possible, the way in which a design model can be made as autonomous as possible, and the way in which a representation can be made as realistic as possible. With regard to these the starting points were respectively the use of sensors, behaviour characteristics and illumination simulations. The development problem is posed by the question regarding the way in which a laboratory setup, in cooperation with a supplier of hardware (Sun Microsystems Nederland BV) and a supplier of software (Autodesk Benelux BV), can be developed. In order to do this use has to be made of their system components, such as workstations and CAD software. Another problem for the development of the laboratory setup is the way in which the project was to be made to lead to presentations and demonstra-tions of 6 technology which was still not yet generally available. The first case study was the development of a 6 presentation of a housing project. This presentation was in the first instance intended for people who had an interest in the project. In addition, naturally, people who really only had an interest in Virtual Reality itself also attended. The presentation was announced as being a first Virtual Open House. Each interested party could wander through the 3D design model and move the furniture. In the course of this case study consideration was above all given to the relationships between the interfaces between the user and the system, the level of detail of the model and the speed of the representation. The second case study was the use of Virtual Reality during a design process. The system is used for the evaluation of visibility and safety aspects of another housing project. The use of the system was initially only intended for the designer and the principal. At the end of the process different design modifications were effected in accordance with their evaluations of the design. After that the system was also used for internal presentations of the applications as well as of the technology. The problem which played a role in the course of these studies was in the first instance a design problem and in the second in-stance a technical problem.