Keywords Abstract
McCartney, K., Ashraf Ismail, and P. Rhodes. "A Multimedia City Model for Environmental Impact Assessment and Public Consultation." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Experiments with different techniques for creating multimedia models of city zones are being carried out in the School of Architecture in University of Portsmouth. This work is part of a cooperative project with the Department of Economics, the New Media Centre, and the Photogrammetry Unit in the Department of Geography, aimed at developing a prototype multimedia model of a sizable part of the City of Portsmouth. The model is designed to facilitate user interaction, and will be tested to evaluate its potential contribution to the process of public consultation, and in facilitating communication between different specialists engaged in the production of environmental impact statements required by the EC Environmental Impact Directive (851337).
Turk, Ziga. "A Network Based Collaboration Framework." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Three roles have been used to describe the relation of computers to the architectural design process - assistant, tool and media. Electronic data exchange over wide area networks raises the importance of the media role. The rapid development of telecommunications demand that students of engineering and architectural professions get acquainted with technology that is being made available. The paper will introduce the possibilities that are provided by the electronic networks for collaboration, information search and retrieval - not only in the scope of research but for the purposes of curricula as well. It will introduce value added networks, analyze possibilities for engineers and architects, enumerate inexpensive or free tools that can be used to enter the electronic village and describe an information server that can disseminate local knowledge to the network community.
Koutamanis, Alexander, Alan Bridges, and Peter Paul Van Loon. "A New Framework for Teaching Computer-Aided Design at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The paper describes the new organization of computer-aided design courses at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The main characteristics of the new organization are emphasis on both technical skills and methodical knowledge, and a wide spectrum of subjects and applications distributed in the thematic structure of the first and second years. As a representative of the new courses the paper outlines Schematic Design, the first computer course in the second year.
Caturano, U.. "A Proposal of Iconic Map on Computer Aided Architectural Design: 3DIMCAAD." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. During the development of my graduation thesis I had to propose a subdivision of informatics technologies for architectural design into several research fields, each of them characterized by specific aims. This kind of subdivision was originally configured as an orientation tool inside the wide CAAD discipline, and only in a second time it took the features of a complete organization layout in which it is understandable not only the position of each single discipline in comparison with the others but, above all, the connections and interactions between them. The model, obtained as the result of many handlings but undefined yet, has been named 3DIMCaad (3 Dimensional Iconic Map on Computer Aided Architectural Design) and, in according to an initial hypothesis it could be regarded as a map of the sectors pointed out by my proposal, in fact, it is a iconic model of the connections and differences between the informatic main topics that I analysed. Every main topic is represented by a spheric nucleus linked to the others by a connection line (the''pipe''), the dimension of which, quite generous, makes the observer understand the numerous interactions and exchange presents if two main topics are linked.
Petrovic, Ivan, and Igor Svetel. "A Sketch of a Distributed Architectural Design System." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 1993. The system is composed of design agents acting on the object-to-be-designed model. The system has no central control. Problem-solving is performed at the local level. The most important agents at present are: ARCH: A Generator, OYSTER: An Evaluator and PDP-AAM Interpreter, PDP-AAM: A Neural-Net-Based Evaluator and Generator.
Ismail, Ashraf, and Kevin McCartney. "A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Site-Development Briefs and Related Planning Regulations." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities, characteristics evaluated will include building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment, the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. In addition to the common graphical output, i.c. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, it will generate textual analysis in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis of proposed development. The tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out with architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of data for environmental statements. Second, field observation and participation will be carried out to observe decision-makers behaviour during assessment of building design proposals. A prototype is currently under development and will be tested against the expectations of the tool designer, Ashraf Ismail, and a team of professionals to be involved in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the study findings will be documented in the research thesis to be presented in June 1995.
Alaimo, G., G. Pellitteri, and A. Scianna. "A Tool for Typological Analysis." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Any design problem is faced drawing from the architect's knowledge both case knowledge and general knowledge. One type of the latter is abstracted from a multiplicity of cases of which the common features are recognised in such a way as to single out a prototype representing in the best way a class of architectural objects. If applied to a set of residential buildings and to the flats in them the analysis is typological and it is one of the fundamental ways of acquiring general knowledge to be used to face design problems. The tool we present is aimed at such a type of analysis and is based on the idea that it possible to acquire qualitative knowledge through the statistical analysis of measurable characteristics of the examined architectural objects. It has been tested by applying it to the typological analysis of a set of flats of illegal buildings in Sicily. The procedure is organised in two main phases. The first one consists in a series of elaborations performed during the reading of architectural organism, the second one consists in a series of statistical analyses on the results (characteristic variables) of the first.
Mallard, Maria, and Edward Ng. "Active Studio Version 1.0." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. In the evening reception held at the Mies Van der Rohe's German Pavilion, Gabriel Ferrater, Rector of Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, challenged the participants of the ECAADE 92 conference that despite all the advances in CAD techniques, none of the many wonderful buildings that had been built in Barcelona was'designed'on computer. To researchers in the field of design and CAD research, the challenge went deeper than designing and architecture. It questions the very essence of CAD methodology and pedagogy.
Kavakli, Manolya, and Nigan Bayazit. "An Experiment on the Image Schemata." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The main objective of this paper is to explain the process of knowledge acquisition utilising the method for the decomposition of the components of a system to extract design rules. The furnished drawing of a dwelling is considered as the language of a designer. These drawings contain the semantic knowledge that can be called general architectural know-how. This paper bases on the decomposition of the syntax of a room image. The syntax of a room image consists of walls, windows, circulation zones and furniture such as beds, wardrobes, commodes, dressing tables, etc. The syntax of a room image has some linkages. The designer put the syntax together with the joints of circulation zones as a grammar to match. The existing relations between the objects in a design can be called grammar. An experiment is applied to three classes of a CAAD course organised by the Turkish Chamber of Architects. The living room is given already furnished in the experiment and the rest of a dwelling is expected to be furnished. In the first phase, the experiment is applied on two different classes in different times. It is interesting that the same grammar is used by 6 of 8 couple of designers for 3 different types (A, B and D) of bedrooms. Only one of the bedrooms of C type) has different design styles in spite of looking much like each other. In the second phase, for the third class of 6 groups, plan is modified slightly. In this case all of the 6 couples of designers use the same grammar for 2 alternatives of D type bedroom for parents. An original method is applied in the elicitation of the knowledge in this experiment. The properties of the objects and their links are represented by a semantic network graph. This paper also presents the grammar of the furnished rooms and shows the density of preferences. Design rules are extracted from these drawings of a furnished dwelling by searching for similarities in the plans designed by different designers. The designers have some specifications about the grammar of furnishing and an image schema of the proposed room in their minds, depending on their education and experiences. During the design of a room, designers look for differences and the similarities existing in the syntax of the proposed room image and the image of furnished room on the screen. If these images match with each other, the designers satisfy with the result This paper investigates the image schemata of the designers by evaluating their drawings. Some design rules are represented by means of image schemata. Matching the joints of circulation zones, the designers put the syntax of different image schemata together and they can illustrate different alternatives, restricted by the translation of these image schemata.
Will, Barry, John Bradford, and F.F. Ng. "Architectural Education Objectives and the Use of Multimedia." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The almost universal curriculum format for schools of architecture involves conventional lecturing techniques in the areas of history. structures, construction. building materials, urban planning, contextual studies and of late CAAD. Conventional academic wisdom dictates that the information and techniques gained from these lectures be applied through the design studio where this acquired data is synthesized with design concepts to produce an end product. Conventional lecture styles have usually imparted information through the spoken word emphasized and accompanied by written support through the use of hand-outs, black/white boards, overhead projection and the ubiquitous slides! More adventurous exponents have endeavored to incorporate videos, films and projection of computer generated screens to supplement the basic information transfer. The transmission retention/comprehension rates of concepts, ideas and basic data have depended greatly on the charisma of the individual lecturer, his command of the subject and the students'enthusiasm to partake of the process of information transference. The inherent problems of lectures being a one way action with little, if any, participatory involvement of the students have caused concerned lecturers to resort to seminars, tutorial, tests, exercises and other forced participation modes to involve students in their own education.
Hellgardt, Michael. "Architectural Theory and Design Grammars." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The idea of artificial brains and artificial intelligence (AI) has been subject to criticism. The objection of J. Searle, for instance, which has been published in 1984 and which was partially directly addressed to one of the centres of AI, the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, is mainly based on two points: (1) interactions between physiological and mental functions, and (2) the intentionality and context-relatedness of meaning. - With an emphasis on architectural design, this paper is about the second point, because the problem of meaning is a neuralgic point in the discussion of “artificial intelligence in design” (AID). Technical parameters are incompatible with mechanisms of meaning in any field of artistic, cultural or non-technical expression. This point, that is the relation between acts of meaning and acts of technical problem-solving and, connectedly, the relation between technological and architectural design, has been widely ignored in the discussion on AID. The development seems to be dominated by the tacit assumption that architecture can be articulated and generated purely in technical and formal terms of information processing beyond the field of architecture itself. Design and shape grammars have become a well established field in the discussion of AID, also with respect to architecture. But questions of architectural history and theory are touched on only incidentally and not sufficiently in this discussion. The problem is not, in other words, simply to include more or less unrelated cases of architecture, or architectural concepts -even if these are famous ones, such as Laugier's original hut for instance but to establish structural relations between arguments of architectural theory and arguments of AID.
Ronchi, Alfredo. "CAAD in Education: Experience at Politecnico di Milano - DISET." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The subject of this presentation may be resumed in a preface about the relevance of CAAD in Education and the main objectives of teaching. This part of paper give details on students curricula and skills. The evolution of the program of the course “Progettazione Edile Assistita” is presented pointing out the method used in education and the main software adopted, particular relevance is reserved to some particular works of the students concerning both software development and application programs results. The third paragraph presents in detail the main results obtained using diagrams and other outputs. The last part of the presentation is devoted to conclusions and the main projects for the future developments of the course. 
Tournay, Bruno. "CAAD in Visual Environment Impact Assessment." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. In June 1993 the Computer Lab had the opportunity to organize a three-week workshop for approximately 10 students without any prior knowledge whatsoever of CAAD. We decided to make the most of this chance to experiment with the CAAD training programme. 
Van Bakel, A.P.M., and Roel Daru. "CAADidactics - an Instrument for Tuning CAAD Systems to Student Styles." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. This paper discusses the features of an instrument for tuning CAAD systems to student styles implemented in the authoring shell Authorware Professional (1989). This application enables students and teachers to evaluate the design progress. It also makes it possible to assess their preferences with respect to their working styles (Subject style) and style preferences in terms of the product style (Object style) in different stages of the design curriculum. The availability of this information enables teachers to adapt their didactical approach to their students. The progress they make during design education can be evaluated by looking at the process documentation as well as by looking at the product documentation generated by the application. This makes the students conscious of their own preferences and affinities. It is up to the student and the teacher whether they want to enhance or compensate those preoccupations. The documented information of previous design sessions can also be used as a guide system for further development and adaptations in styles of design and designing. In the design studio this style knowledge can also be used to establish adequate and workable design teams. Some of the features discussed in this paper are already implemented in a small prototype application. The prototype application will be presented and discussed. Other features will be implemented in the near future.
Lintl, C., D. Economides, M. Hesse, V. Langenbahn, S. Roth, and C. Brack. "CAD Education at Munich ." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. We are stressing the idea that a combination of learning CAD and developing a design- work will hardly lead to success. It is first important to learn the principle handling of CAD - only then a reasonable application can work out. Our pupils have the chance of comparing, Iearning and working on several different CAD-systems with different philosophies and purposes, so the interested students have the opportunity to choose a tool that fits their working-habits and their designing-methods. Out of an overall number of 200 students of architecture each semester about 150 are willing to participate in the CAD- curriculum. 100 will be left after the low-level introductions and exercises, done with the standard: AutoCAD - these students than have a basic idea of construction with computers. Those students who are going into details are deepening there skills to an extent where any experiment is feasible. It is hard work to get to this perfection.
Petric, Jelena, and Thomas W. Maver. "CAD in the Design Studio." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. This paper summarised a multi-media presentation which was authored without tuition by a 4th year student of the Department of Architecture & Building Science in the University of Strathclyde - Lindsay Johnston. In it she gives a detailed account of a 12 week project to design a Primary School relying very heavily on computer aided design support. It was a requirement of the brief that the design produced by the student should come within the (severe) cost, area and energy consumption constraints set out in the brief.
Szalapaj, Peter. "Contextual Hypermedia in the Design Studio." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The focus of this paper is on the development and use of hypermedia applications for the presentation of design studio projects, based upon the author's own recent experience of teaching CAD at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. The contention of this paper is that this activity cannot be reduced to routine Hypercard stack development. Instead, the development of applications in this area need to give support to the expression of the design-theoretical issues that are central to the presentation of any design studio project, by exploiting the many issues of concern that are emerging from the field of human- computer interaction (HCI) The hypermedia application i.e. in this case design-theoretical views of a design project, will inevitably influence the specification of a user-interface, and hence the presentation and appearance of the design project. This paper will investigate the extent to which the interface can be separated out from the application and the converse issue namely, whether non-contextual hypermedia environments restrict design applications.
Asanowicz, Aleksander. "Designing is Information and Emotion." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. It could be stated that designing is a procedure of working out the problems. The point of that procedure is to transform the input data (information about what is demanded) into the system documentation (thing) accomplishing the task. While designing we would like to reach our goal in a certain (reliable) way. 
Municio, Jose. "Developing One's Vision to Get the Notions Better." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. It can be easily observed, at least in Spain, that there are many members of the academe within the field of architecture who still confuse the use of the computer with the teaching of architecture. It as if the simple fact of having an access to a computer were a giant step in the development and dominion of architecture.
Fantacone, Enrico. "Environmental Compatibility and Computer Aided Decision MakingRelated to the Third University in Rome: an Integrated Application of Several Methods." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The EC Human Capital and Mobility Project, has allowed collaboration between Universita'di Roma.'La Sapienza', and University of Strathclyde (Glasgow), on a research programme developed by the author. The research consists on an integrated application of assessment methods that will allow designers, planners, and public administrators to operate on defined rules, to evaluate “a priori” the designing and planning parameters. The new integrated operating method, could be used for the elaboration of developing urban plans, or even for public design competition assessment. 
Boekholt, J.T.. "Evaluation First Year Design Projects." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. During the first year students are taught that it is important to learn to evaluate their projects themselves. Therefore a checklist is introduced and explained over the year which can be used by the students to formulate their criteria, evaluation scales and weighting factors. The main aspects that are evaluated are utility, structural and manufacturing aspects. Only little attention during the first year is given to legal and economical aspects. Main goal is to develop a systematic and integrated approach towards the evaluation of design projects. The evaluation of the student is compared with the judgement of the teacher. Final marks are given by the teacher.
Glanville, Ranulph. "Exploring and Illustrating." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. CAD, in its usually available forms, is wonderful at illustrating proposed architectural objects. But, as I argued last year at the Barcelona meeting, it is not so good at helping us extend the richness and development of architectural ideas ? at the “back of envelopei and other developmental Ievels ? indeed, it is (for pragmatic reasons ? and others) actually restrictive of change, what-if, suck-it-and-see, etc. I shall describe a work environment, which we have been developing since last year in Portsmouth, in which computing is used by students to assist the generation, testing and extension of ideas: in which exploring takes precedence over illustrating. The central notion of this environment involves the extension and manipulation, through co-operative sharing of a joint “resource base” of computer stored images (recognising origination rather than ownership), and (parts of) which may be copied and transformed by group members as they seek to develop, enrich and extend their ideas. Transformations may be intentional, but some occur through the limits of our computational medium such as compression losses, file formats, colour depth and resolution and are welcomed as a contribution made by the computing medium used. Images are located through a developing, shared filing system, picture search and history trace. The environment relies on a small suite of computers wile a powerful machine acting as a fileserver and undertaking central, computationally-intensive tasks. For this environment, we have chosen software carefully, and the choice will be described. We have also developed a small, but crucial program that traces developments in the shared resource base ? in what is, in effect, our own, operational CyberSpace (as distinct from a Virtual Reality). Through these mechanisms, we believe we are able to evade the limitation set by Ross Ashby's “Law of Requisite Variety”, thus expanding the creativity-base of participating designers (students). There are no “scientific results”, but we believe the reasoning behind, and the activity and exploration of our environment is valuable in itself, and may be of interest to collegues.
Chilton, J.C., T. Wester, and J. Yu. "Exploring Structural Morphology Using CAD." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Often in the design process the student's imagination is restricted by their inability to visualise, model or accurately sketch ideas for innovative structural systems. By using CAD as a design tool it is possible to explore the morphology of complex structures and to be able to produce perspective drawings of them with relative ease. Within AutoCAD there is a small library of standard three-dimensional objects and surfaces that can be called upon to generate more complex forms. However, to further facilitate the architectural design process, an extended library of innovative structural forms would allow the professional designer, or student, greater design freedom and any increase in the palette of structural forms available should stimulate creativity. As practical examples, the paper describes how students have been encouraged to experiment with the use of structures which can only be physically modelled with difficulty and which are also difficult to represent on the two- dimensional surface of the drawing board unless the geometry has previously been determined by the methods described. These are (i) Reciprocal Frame three-dimensional beam grillage structures and (ii) plate domes created from lattice structures by point-to- plane duality. The problem, of representation of these structures has been overcome, in the first case, by generating AutoLISP procedures to draw the complex three-dimensional geometrical form automatically in AutoCAD and, in the second case, by the development of the computer program CADual.
Gavin, Lesley. "Generative Modelling and Electronic Lego." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. This paper shows work exemplifying the further extent of computer capabilities in the field of design. The work stems from a belief that for computers to be used effectively within the architectural profession their utility must stretch far beyond the process of description of geometric data, but be incorporated in the fundamental roots of design: that of conceptual design. Computers can be used to access the knowledge we have and then formulate this knowledge into a working language of design. Computers can be used to generate space and form in accordance with any relationship the designer may choose to set. This allows them to be used from the very conception of design. It is only by working from the very beginning, the very basis of the design of a building that we can fully develop the integration of computers in the construction industry. The work undertaken sets out primarily to explore one of the ways computers could be used in the field of architectural design. In recognition that an important byproduct of any design search is the enhanced understanding of the problem itself, the work was directed towards a particular project. This allowed each stage of thought to be to be considered as it arose and subsequently incorporated into the design model. The work does not attempt to automise the design process but simply tries to explore some of the opportunities offered by computers and see if they can be easily incorporated into the design process offering design solutions that may not otherwise have been considered. The exploration resulted in a simple design process model that incorporates the more accessible and useful aspects of computer technology.
Casaus, A., J. Fargas, and P. Papuzian. "Hybrid Design Environments - a Research Program on Creative Collaboration and Communication." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. This paper gives an overview of a research program initiated in the Architectural Design Department of the Escola Tcnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona on issues of communication and collaboration in computer aided design. The work is centered around emerging design situations which can be attributed directly to the incorporation of new technologies in education and practice. One of these is the “design trianglei composed of a traditional designer, a CAD workstation and a computer literate collaborator acting as the design medium. Another is the “virtual workshopi consisting of design collaboration involving large-scale distributed communications networks. The research program stresses three common characteristics of these situations which it aims to study in parallel in the setting of an design workshop. The first of these is the characteristic of distance, both physical and conceptual, which separates, on the one hand, the traditional designer from the CAD document and, on the other, the participants of a distributed workshop from each other and each others'thinking. The second, is the typically hybrid nature of such situations where computer technology interacts with more traditional techniques and alternative media are combined both at the level of production and in channels and modes of communication. And finally, the third and most significant for the methodology of the research program, is the fact that both the design triangle and the virtual workshop make explicit aspects of design activity, interaction and intentions which remain hidden or are only implicit in traditional designing. 
Kokosalakis, J., J. Farrow, and N. Spalton. "Introducing 2D Draughting and 3D CAD Modelling into the Information and Library Studies Curriculum in Response to Increasingly Complex Design Requirements of Information Resources." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. This paper describes enhancements to the Information and Library Studies curriculum at the Liverpool John Moores University. In the design process for buildings and space utilised for learning resources informed client involvement is seen as important by the information professional. A new module has been introduced with the aim of providing students with the knowledge and skills to communicate effectively with building design professionals. It is apparent that CAD has a place in this teaching. The programme of study is outlined, including a discussion of significant, relevant examples produced by the CAAD staff of the School of the Built Environment. The teaching methods were drawn from experience in the well established curricula and delivery of CAAD to the architecture and environmental planning students using School of the Built Environment Macintosh hardware and software. From the Aldham Robarts Learning Resource Centre, (presently nearing completion) examples will be shown of animated models, design, organisational and staffing solutions to new technological demands. These include transfer of the Austin - Smith: Lord Intergraph/MicroStation 3D model to Zoom, animation with Electric Image and Theseus and assisting library staff to use ArchiCAD to design and consider shelf planning arrangements for negotiation with the architects. There are interesting lessons to be learned about the advantages of CAD for future client control.
Isakovic, Tatiana, and Matej Fischinger. "Making Reinforced Concrete Cross-sections Design Easy and Understandable." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Modern computing facilities provide an alternative graphical approach to the design of cross-sections. A description of this process might be “strength evaluationi, since, for any chosen cross-section, concrete strength, and reinforcement size, location, and yield strength, the flexural resistance (capacity) is defined by the bending moment-axial force interaction diagram. The factored forces are then plotted into the diagram and, by comparing the capacity and demand on the computer screen, the designer can decide about the suitability of the chosen cross-section. If necessary, the cross-sectional properties can be changed easily. There are several advantages of this design approach. The design procedure is fast, clear and economical. For example, all loading combinations for all the columns of the frame in Fig. 1 can be checked simultaneously. The procedure is the same for various shapes of cross-sections and it enables simple reinforcement optimization as well as the typization of cross-sections. For example, only two types of cross-sections can satisfy the design requirements for all the columns in the mentioned frame.
Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga. "Multimedia - a Chance for Regional Architecture." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The consciousness of identity, safety and identification of the individual in a social group, a nation or a place in which this person exists, can come into being and develop only if the continuing of tradition is secured. This continuing is in fact the person's indispensable and first need. It manifests itself especially through the cultural and spatial tradition of the person's own habitation, or more precisely - in the regional, native artistic expression of architecture.
Dosti, P., Helena Linzer, Bob Martens, and A. Voigt. "Multimedia for Environmental Simulation - Framework of Research." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Nature as complete entity having existed before us, having produced us, of which we are a part of and which reaches far beyond us and our knowledge stands both for productivity and product, for stones, earth, water, air, plants, animals, human beings, for energy as such. On account of his activity and his intellectual powers and faculties the human being represents the center of this interrelation comprising his vital space, being perceived by him either consciously or unconsciously, the structure and formation of which he changes, which in turn, however, significantly codetermines his behaviour and also his development. Spatial effect analysis and spatial impact analysis take the cross- linked interrelations of nature into account and thus the correlated diverse interactions by means of integral representation, determine the direct and indirect as well as the immediate and mediate decisions as to space and furnish us with decision-conclusions by means of modifications. Based on the all-in-all outlook encompassing nature- mankind-space spatial impact also means in particular compatibility within systems giving due regard to the factor time. The following topics are treated within the framework of research: (1.) Elaboration of a methodical framework regarding research and development in the field of multimedia-implementation for environmental planning. (2.) Preparative work concerning implementation areas of multimedia focussing on urban & regional planning and architecture. (3.) Planning process and planning levels, further more in the fields of information and decision process and accompanying verification. (4.) Optimizing interaction of multimedia and environmental simulation. (5.) Definition of research- and development-requirements as far as subject-specific and EDP-technical aspects are concerned. (6.) Structurizing of projects regarding realization of framework of research.
Hovestadt, Volkmar. "MultiMedia in Architectural Education." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Developments in the field of Computer Science and Architecture are leading to new relationships between these two areas, which should influence architectural education. I would like to present a model in which the new possibilities of computing in the field of multimedia are experimentally introduced in architectural education. 
Koutamanis, Alexander. "On the Correlation of Design and Computational Techniques in Architectural Education." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Many studies employ analyses of human intelligence as justification or guideline for the development of machine intelligence. The main benefit brought on by such studies has been the improvement of our understanding of both human and machine intelligence. In teaching architecture with computers the same approach can make explicit design techniques architects use by means of equivalent or similar computational techniques. Explicitation of design techniques leads to a better understanding of architects'activities, as well as to which computer tools can offer automated support to these activities. In the curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, relations and correspondences between computational and design techniques form a major underlying theme in computer-aided design courses. The purposes of this theme are (i) comprehension of the computational structure of a computer design tool, and (ii) explanation of how such computational structures relate to architectural design. (correspondences between the computational principles of computer programs and design techniques are instrumental in defining the scope of each computer tool in architectural design while improving the students'understanding of architectural design as a cognitive process and thus promoting automation as a natural extension of established conventional practices. The paper outlines the correlation of computational and design techniques in the case of electronic spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are introduced through a thorough presentation of the various kinds and aspects of constraint propagation, their underlying computational principle. Numerical constraint propagation is explained by means of spreadsheet applications for simple numerical calculations. Symbolic constraint propagation is presented in the framework of machine perception. Both forms are then linked to architectural design through parametric design and the recognition of spaces in floor plans. Exercises linked to spreadsheets and constraint propagation include the parametric calculation of stairs and making parametric variations of a building on the basis of floor area calculations.
Shih, Naai-Jung. "Planning Automation with a Relational Matrix." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The purpose of this paper is to present a relational matrix of process, demands, and tools in automation as a framework in CAD education. Automating process is a closely related sequence of steps from clarifying demands, evaluating tools, operating study, purchasing equipment, training, maintaining, to renewing outdated equipment. Demands reflect a firm's expectation. Clarifying CAD demands is the first step in automating process, and clarified demands explicitly define the goal for automation. The demands include amount of work, content of changes, drawing specification, drawing generating process, data exchange, error-proving procedure, equipment management, training plans, etc. Proper selected tools facilitate automation process and ensure the efficiency and effectiveness in fulfilling a firm's demands. The selection is made according to the considerations associated with software, operating system, and hardware. In order to promote the CAD education in a new era, this matrix is introduced as a framework of automation.
Hirschberg, Urs, M. Meister, and F. Neumann. "Processing of Geographic Data for CAAD-supported Analysis and Design of Urban Development Areas." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The interdisciplinary research project aims at the development of a hard- and software environment to support the representation, analysis, manipulation and design of urban development areas for architects and city planners. It was started in 1990 and involves three groups at the ETH Zurich: Architecture/Urban design - Processing of Geographic Data/Photogrammetry -Computer Sciences/CAAD. The first part of this paper will give an introduction to the goals and implications of the project by comparing it with a similar project one of the authors took part in as a student. Then the paper gives a brief description of the work of the three groups involved, an overview of the methods they employed and the results that were achieved. The main focus will be on the work of the CAAD group. Finally some conclusions are drawn and problems are discussed. The future work includes the testing of the tool by students during the winter term 1993/94. 
Monedero, Javier. "Renderings. Some Technical and Non Technical Questions Raised by the Use of Computers in the Visual Analysis of Architecture." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. It should be expected, in a Congress, that participants bring with them, not only ideas, but also results or, at least, stimulating images. In the Laboratory of Architectural Graphic Techniques at the ETS of Barcelona, we have spent some time generating images directly related with architecture, based on the work of both students and professors. These images have been produced with academic purposes, but also in relation with some works carried out with City Institutions interested in the study of the evaluation of environment visual impact and the role that computers may play in this area. In our previous Congress, in Barcelona, we showed some of these images, obtained by direct digital processing of bitmaps. In another Congress, later, we showed some other images, obtained by rendering, with simple local models (Phong models) and some tricks that helped to make them more realistic. Although I do agree with the old chinese saying that a good image is worth a thousand words, in this case, I have thought more convenient to present a paper that may be read quietly by those interested in these subjects, that might be useful just as it gathers references known by many but grouped in a particular order, and that pretends, respectfully, to criticize the actual situation. This can explain why we consider that the results we have obtained should be improved by new and better techniques and why we think that this dissatisfaction should be shared by others who do not seem to feel the same as we do. The aim of this contribution is, therefore, to reflect on the actual situation and the ways there seem to be open for us to follow. 
Caturano, Umberto, and Carlo di Marcellinara. "Solid Modelling by Low-cost Hardware and Software: the Crystal Palace's Node." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. This paper describes the approach to the solid modelling by low-cost hardware and software, developed by a workgroup composed by staff members, young researchers and students of the University of Naples - Faculty of Architecture. The work was born in need of exposing to the students the project of Crystal Palace, designed in 1850 by J. Paxton, and used in the Italian universities as an example of first prefabrication by components and the organization of the yard. Using commercial programs and the students'computers, we had done a 3D model of the Crystal Palace's structural node, making an interesting experience based on the cooperation between university structures and private resources.
Diessenbacher, Claus, and Ernst Rank. "Teaching Design with CAD?" In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Abstract as well as functionally dependant design exercises are essential components of an architectural education at nearly every university. Their goal is to provide architect students with a feeling for proportions, colours, materials etc., and to teach and train them in threedimensional thinking. Pictures and concepts, developed by the designer are materialized by various technologies such as with pencil and paper in the traditional two-dimensional techniques or with clay, wood, paper etc. in three-dimensional modelling. Now the computer and the CAD-system join the palette of the designers available resources in presentation as both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional medium. Although CAD is often considered and taught to be only a better drafting tool, the educational goal of our group at the University of Dortmund is to employ CAD as a design support medium. The prerequisites for work with the computer and the CAD system are provided in a compulsory two semester undergraduate subject. Basic programming, work with spreadsheets etc. are some exemplary themes provided in the form of lectures and practical exercises. A main emphasis of this instruction is the mastery of three-dimensional working technology with a comprehensive CAD-System. In cooperation of our computer science group and architecture chairs, seminars involving the use of CAD as a three-dimensional design tool, are offered as graduate courses. The seminars consist of loops of modelling and evaluating objects in a three-dimensional space. With this, the most possible realistic studies in colour, light and proportion take place exclusively on the computer.
Jakimowicz, Adam. "The Architect and CAD - a Question of Creativity,." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. This paper shows some efforts to touch and approach the problem of creation in architecture and think of importance of its tools.
Wrona, S., S. Kowal, and R. Rzadkiewicz. "The Basic Principles of CAAD Education: Warsaw School of Architecture Case." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Department of Architecture at Warsaw University of Technology is 78 years old. Its long tradition was built mainly around functionalists movements in architecture and till now has meaningful influence on approaches and methods in design teaching. Till now, the basic method of design teaching is individual work in small master's design classes in which students are designing by hand drawing, drafting and building models, which are in the same time creative methods (“designing by drawing or modellingi) and communication media (mainly to communicate with the master or its assistant). Students are learning from the knowledge and design experience of a master, often following or imitating his workshop and aesthetic concepts. This traditional method was expensive but efficient in preparation of architects to their professional activities. Therefore, when we started with CAAD classes in mid 80-ties, the “design learning by computer modellingi was the basic issue.
Glennie, William. "The Future of CAAD Education." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The field of Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) is composed of two main threads of development, Academic and Professional, and can be described in three decades, which correspond roughly with three generations of computer systems. This paper presents a brief description of the entire period of school- and practice-based research and development on the applications of computers in Architectural design, and shows how these efforts have and have not been relevant to students'future experiences. Educators must take a fresh look at their current courses and research programs to make sure that they are relevant in the rapidly changing world of professional practice. With limited human and financial resources at most institutions, it is critical to make the best possible choices for the immediate and long-term benefit of today's students. While it is not appropriate for Schools of Architecture to operate strictly at the behest of the profession, we must prepare our students for the world in which they will practice. Therefore, I believe that it is important for the faculty at each School to consider the following questions: (-) Are our students prepared to enter realistic positions as soon as they graduate? (-) Do they have the background necessary to use computers effectively in the future? (-) Do our research efforts have results that designers are likely to use today or any time soon to make better buildings or to make buildings better?
Rüdiger, Bjarne. "The Masonry House as a Digital Model." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. “The Masonry House” is an experimental building designed in connection with the building exhibition “Byggeri for Milliarder” (“Building for Billions”) in Copenhagen. The house is intended as a collection of examples and did only exist during the week the exhibition was. “The Masonry House” contains examples of both old technology and attempts to show entirely new constructions and new ways of using masonry. The house is constructed as a combination of prefabricated elements, wall ribs, decks and walls, and of parts built on location, cupolas, stairs, etc. The building process with element assembling and construction had to be done in six days and demanded a precise Organization and coordination with use from shift work. The very house had been in process for quite a long time, but in connection with the carrying out and preparation of information materials the Datacentre at the School of Architecture was involved in the project. After having produced a spatial model of the house completed, the wish for describing the construction process arose, to produce a “spatial time schedule” for the use of workmen and to describe the process in an animation film for the spectators at the exhibition. 
Serrano, J.G., J. Coll, J.C. Melero, and Mark Burry. "The Need to Step Beyond Conventional Architectural Software." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The Sagrada Familia Church has appointed two groups of consultants to assist the translation of Gaudi's 1:10 scaled models of the nave into coherent information from which to build. One team has been undertaking the static analysis of the nave roof vault structure and the other the study of the complexities of Gaudi's composition in order to provide full-scale production templates and models for the walls. Both teams had begun using the same basic CAD package and both have had to move onto high-end and very expensive solid-modelling software normally used by mechanical engineers and vehicle designers. Both groups are collaborating together with different accents despite an improbable geographical separation. The original problem, one of intersecting ruled-surfaces accurately to reflect the geometries of the surviving fragments of the original models, has led to surprising possibilities which were not anticipated at the outset. Currently the potential of parametric variation and associative geometries are being investigated as a mirror for some of the intuitive design process and finite element analysis is being considered as a means of interactively analysing the structural implications for each study. The software being used also has a powerful ray-tracing module, rather than being simply a tool to produce eye-catching'realistic'renderings it has proved to be invaluable in allowing the computer user to understand the spatial complexities of the components being studied. This paper discusses the merits of an architecture so demanding (despite having been designed at the beginning of this century) that it requires the most costly equipment in today's market and it will consider the proposition that in ordinary circumstances, an architecture too complex to be described using basic CAD tools is an architecture beyond our reach. The interdisciplinary nature of the diverse and powerful modules within the software referred to will be used to contest this proposition using the presence of both teams in schools of architecture as evidence.
Stenvert, Ronald. "The Vector-drawing as a Means to Unravel Architectural Communication in the Past." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. Unlike in painting, in architecture one single person never controls the whole process between conception and realization of a building. Ideas of what the building will eventually look like, have to be conveyed from patron to the actual builders, by way of drawings. Generally the architect is the key-figure in this process of communication of visual ideas. Nowadays many architects design their new buildings by using computers and Computer-Aided (Architectural) Design programs like AutoCad and VersaCAD. Just like traditional drawings, all these computer drawings are in fact vector-drawings, a collection of geometrical primitives like lines, circle segments etc. identified by the coordinates of their end points. Vector-based computer programs can not only be used to design the future, but also as a means to unravel the architectural communication in the past. However, using the computer as an analyzing tool for a better comprehension of the past is not as simple as it seems. Historical data from the past are governed by unique features of date and place. The complexity of the past combined with the straightforwardness of the computer requires a pragmatic and basic approach in which the computer acts as a catalytic agent, enabling the scholar to arrive manually at his own - computer-assisted - conclusions. From this it turns out that only a limited number of projects of a morphological kind are suited to contribute to new knowledge, acquired by the close-reading of the information gained by way of meaningful abstraction. An important problem in this respect is how to obtain the right kind of architectural information. All four major elements of the building process - architect, design, drawing and realization - have their own different and gradually shifting interpretations in the past. This goes especially for the run-of-the-mill architecture which makes up the larger part of the historical urban environment. Starting with the architect, one has to realize that only a very limited part of mainstream architecture was designed by architects. In almost all other cases the role of the patron and the actual builder exceeds that of the architect, even to the extent that they designed buildings themselves. The position of design and drawing as means of communication also changed in the past. Until the middle of the nineteenth century drawings were not the chief means of communication between architects and builders, who got the gist of the design from a model, or, encountering problems, simply asked the architect or supervisor. From the nineteenth century onwards the use of drawings became more common, but almost never represented the building entirely “as built”. In 1991 I published my Ph.D. thesis: Constructing the past: computerassisted architectural-historical research: the application of image-processing using the computer and Computer-Aided Design for the study of the urban environment, illustrated by the use of treatises in seventeenth-century architecture (Utrecht 1991). Here, a reconstruction of this historical communication process will be presented on the basis of a project studying the use of the Classical orders as prescribed in various architectural treatises, compared to the use of the orders in a specific group of still existing buildings in The Netherlands dating from the late sixteenth and entire seventeenth century. Comparisons were made by using vector-drawings. Both the illustrations in the the treatises and actual buildings were “translatedi into computer-drawings and then analyzed. 
Lyons, Arthur, and Charles Doidge. "Understanding Structural Movement Joints with CAAD Animation." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. The well-established use, as an architectural design tool, of computer graphics using'fly-through'techniques gives a highly visual overview of design concepts and may additionally illustrate certain specific details, but it cannot show their time-dependent dynamic function. This paper describes and illustrates how CAAD animation can be used to analyse not only structural philosophy but also the dynamic effects of nonstatic loading and thermal movement, thus leading to a better understanding of the design criteria applied in certain elegant solutions. The CAAD video animations illustrate the structural philosophy relating to the facade of the refurbished Bracken House, London and the dynamic operation of key movement junctions within Stansted Airport and East Croydon Railway Station.
Marten, R., Andre Brown, and F.F. Horton. "Using a Relational Database and CAD program in tandem: exemplified by Health Centre Design." In Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design: 11th eCAADe Conference Proceedings. eCAADe: Conferences. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1993. It is not always obvious to Architecture students how database and spreadsheet programs can be used as a design aid. At Liverpool we discuss and illustrate the use of such programs as part of a compulsory first year course, but it is clear that students on the course find it much easier to appreciate the usefulness and relevance of the drawing and modelling programs which they look at than other elements of the course, such as database handling. What we plan to do for the academic year 1993/4 is to illustrate how a (relational) database can have the potential to aid design and to analyse the design process for real projects. The particular example which we will be describing is that of the design of Health Centres in the UK.