Keywords Abstract
Candy, E., Thomas W. Maver, and J. Petric. "A Multi-Media Celebration of Robert Adam's Glasgow Architecture." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 43-54. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. This paper is a summary of work done in preparation for an exhibition titled “A European Vision: Robert Adam's Glasgowi which marks the bi-centenary of Robert Adam's death. The main contributors to this project, orchestrated over academic sessions 91/92, were the undergraduate and post-graduate students from the Department of Architecture, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.
Saggio, Antonino. "A New Tool for Studio Teaching - Object Based Modeling." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 251-264. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The scope of this paper is to present Computer Aided Architectural Design (and more particularly the dynamic and incremental modelling characteristics of Object Based Modelling) as a tool to reinforce the teaching of architectural design. Utilized within a method based on a cyclical application of “Concept and Testingi, OBM has the possibility to work as an amplifier of design ideas and as a meaningful tool for the advancement of architectural design. Three related experiences support this hypothesis. The role played in concrete designs by an Object Based Modelling environment. Teaching with CAAD and OBM in the realm of documentation and analysis of architecture. Previous applications of the Concept-Testing methodology in design studios. The central sections of the paper focus on the analysis of these experiences, while the last section provides a 15 week, semester based, studio structure that incorporates OBM in the overall calendar and in key assignments. While the scope of this work coincides with the thesis presented at the Acadia'92 conference in Charleston (South Carolina), to focus the argument more clearly content, text and illustrations differ in several parts. 
Amirante, I., S. Rinaldi, and F. Muzzillo. "A Tutorial Experiment Concerning Dampness Diagnosis Supported by an Expert System." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 159-172. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. (A) The teaching of Technology of Building Rehabilitation in Italian  Universities - (B) Experimental course of technological rehabilitation with computer tools - (C) Synthesis of technological approach - (D) Dampness diagnostic process using the Expert System - (E) Primary consideration on tutorial experience - (F) Bibliography
Monreal, Amadeo, and Guillermo Vasquez de de la Puente. "Alternatives to Syntactic Paradigms in CAAD: Using Random Numbers in Layout Generation and Spatial Modeling." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 497-510. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The paper provides instances of graphic techniques using random numbers in layout generation and spatial modelling. Leaving aside more elaborate methods based on shape grammars and syntactically oriented schemes, direct graphic procedures useful in computer aided architectural design are discussed. Drawings presented show how aleatory input can influence the appearance of computer generated forms.
Ward, D., F.F. Horton, and Andre Brown. "An Environmental Design Assistant." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 427-434. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. One of the problems facing students of architecture and those teaching of architecture is that the body of information which needs to be bourne in mind when designing is continually increasing. One area where there has been a rapid recent growth in interest and consequent legislation is in environmental or “green” matters. As an example recent legislation has been introduced in an effort to standardise the procedures for assessing building, and in particular their energy consumption. This paper reports on the development of a Hypermedia based tool to aid the process of the Environmental design of buildings with the objective of producing a computer-based aid which encourages understanding and innovation rather than leading the. user through a mechanical process of form filling. We conclude with comments on the effectiveness of the tool as a design aid and propose future developments for the work on computer-based Environmental Assessment.
Rahman, Shama. "Architectural Education to Suit Computers - Or: Computers to Suit Architectural Education?" In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 379-386. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Do the thinking processes which generate architectural design contrast so sharply with the thinking processes generated by the computer that a question like this is asked ? Or is it because computer- integrated education is still missing from the agenda for architectural education that a question like this is rarely asked?
Laerdal, Arnbjørn. "Architecture on Cards." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 75-84. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The ArchiCards project (tentative name) is a prototype of a learning tool in architectural theory and history. It applies this novel technology to give a completely new approach to the acquisition of this kind of information. The aim is to give the user a summary along with an understanding of some of the relations in the world of architecture. Also, it has been an issue to unveil some of the possibilities this technology offers in the teaching of architecture.
Atac, Ibrahim. "CAAD Education and Post-Graduate Opportunities (At Mimar Sinan University)." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 273-278. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. This paper addresses new design teaching strategies at an important and traditional university in Istanbul, founded as the Academy of Fine Arts 110 years ago. It will include a short review of design education before the Academy changed into a university, and a description of the present situation with regard to computers. Nearly two years ago, CAAD education was introduced as an elective subject. The students show great interest in CAD, most Turkish architects now work with computers and CAAD graphics, although automated architecture has not yet become firmly established. The aim of the CAD studio is also to establish an institute which will allow university staff to develop their own programs and to pursue scientific research in this field. On the basis of rising requests from researchers and students, rapid and healthy developments should be made to keep up with new technologies. As the improvement of the specialized involvement with CAD is the future target, MSU is attempting to broaden its horizon by including design methodologies of the last decades.
Glanville, Ranulph. "CAD Abusing Computing." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 213-224. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. I should like to differentiate three ways in which computers can be applied (used) in any field?although, in this case, I shall speak of architecture as the universal exemplar: that is, three approaches. I should also like to differentiate two attitudes to what computing is.
Bille, Pia. "CAD at the AAA ." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 279-288. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Teaching computer science at the Aarhus School of Architecture goes back as far as to the beginning of the 80is, when a few teachers and students were curious towards the new media seeing its great developing perspectives and its possible use in the design of architecture. The curiosity and excitement about technology continued, although the results were modest and the usefulness not a dominant aspect in this early period. In the middle of the 80is the School of Architecture was given the opportunity by means of state funding to buy the first 10 IBM PC's to run AutoCad among other programmes. Beside this a bigger CAD-system Gable 4D Series was introduced running on MicroVax Workstations. The software was dedicated to drafting buildings in 2 and 3 dimensions - an important task within the profession of architects.
Chilton, John. "Computer Aided Structural Design in Architectural Instruction." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 443-450. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. In schools of architecture there is a tendency to associate the use of computers solely with the production of graphic images as part of the architectural design process. However, if the architecture is to work as a building it is also essential that technical aspects of the design are adequately investigated. One of the problem areas for most architectural students is structural design and they are often reluctant to use hand calculations to determine sizes of structural elements within their projects. In recent years, much of the drudgery of hand calculation has been removed from the engineer by the use of computers, and this has, hopefully, allowed a more thorough investigation of conceptual ideas and alternatives. The same benefit is now becoming available to architectural students. This is in the form of structural analysis and design programs that can be used, even by those having a limited knowledge of structural engineering, to assess the stability of designs and obtain approximate sizes for individual structural elements. The paper discusses how the use of such programs is taught, within the School of Architecture at Nottingham. Examples will be given of how they can assist students in the architectural design process. In particular, the application of GLULAM, a program for estimating sizes of laminated timber elements and SAND, a structural analysis and design package, will be described.
Potts, James, and Nigel Mills. "Computers, Video and Architecture." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 377-378. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The prime objective of this study is the analysis and the understanding of the underlying architectural principles (ideas) behind the particular seminar work that they have been given. Although this study is limited to one building its real significance lies not only in what it tells us about it, but also what it reveals about architecture itself. By distilling and comparing these buildings and stripping away the circumstances of their creation, we are shown universal principles of their design. This universality invites comparison to other buildings far removed in time and place.
Bridges, Alan. "Computing and Problem Based Learning at Delft University of Technology Faculty of Architecture." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 289-294. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Delft University of Technology, founded in 1842, is the oldest and largest technical university in the Netherlands. It provides education for more than 13,000 students in fifteen main subject areas. The Faculty of Architecture, Housing, Urban Design and Planning is one of the largest faculties of the DUT with some 2000 students and over 500 staff members. The course of study takes four academic years: a first year (Propaedeuse) and a further three years (Doctoraal) leading to the “ingenieur” qualification. The basic course material is delivered in the first two years and is taken by all students. The third and fourth years consist of a smaller number of compulsory subjects in each of the department's specialist areas together with a wide range of option choices. The five main subject areas the students may choose from for their specialisation are Architecture, Building and Project Management, Building Technology, Urban Design and Planning, and Housing.  The curriculum of the Faculty has been radically revised over the last two years and is now based on the concept of “Problem-Based Learningi. The subject matter taught is divided thematically into specific issues that are taught in six week blocks. The vehicles for these blocks are specially selected and adapted case studies prepared by teams of staff members. These provide a focus for integrating specialist subjects around a studio based design theme. In the case of second year this studio is largely computer-based: many drawings are produced by computer and several specially written computer applications are used in association with the specialist inputs. This paper describes the “block structure” used in second year, giving examples of the special computer programs used, but also raises a number of broader educational issues. Introduction of the block system arose as a method of curriculum integration in response to difficulties emerging from the independent functioning of strong discipline areas in the traditional work groups. The need for a greater level of selfdirected learning was recognised as opposed to the “passive information modeli of student learning in which the students are seen as empty vessels to be filled with knowledge - which they are then usually unable to apply in design related contexts in the studio. Furthermore, the value of electives had been questioned: whilst enabling some diversity of choice, they may also be seen as diverting attention and resources from the real problems of teaching architecture.
Pittioni, Gernot. "Concepts of CAAD-Instruction." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 363-376. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Today we can look back on several years of data processing support in architecture. When computer aided architectural design - CAAD - entered the field there was a lot of utter confusion in the beginning, a lot more than usually in other more technical application-fields of CAD. The architect is a very special CAD-user, as he is a very special member of all those other very analytical and scientific faculties around. There is a lot of tradition involved, tradition that has got its roots far back in medieval and classic periods and is rich of art and creativity and intuition. Mostly lots more of this than scientific analysis, exact research, and similar stuff. We could spot a large number of architects who would have been horrified when they are confronted with the analytic research of the very basic problem as how architects are designing - the methods, the procedures and the ways of thinking. And there CAAD was entering the architects'studios. No question that this caused a lot of trouble. CAD in architecture is a very provoking subject as the new tool is going to gain ground against the tradition of centuries of handmade architectural designs and drawings. And there we don't even touch the future aspects of the computer's architectural design support - what about the imminent threat of computer support in the holy domain of architectural creativity and intuition. What about the uneasy idea of CAAD in connection with artificial intelligence? The problem of CAAD-education has been largely neglected through a number of years. If there existed a certain horror looking at the mere idea of CAD-support in architecture, horror became to outrage, when university education was discussed. In our days we can stay a good deal more relaxed, when we speak of CAAD education - we not only got used to it, we are convinced, that the whole subject is of high importance.
Hoffer, Erin. "Creating the Electronic Design Studio: Development of a Heterogeneous Networked Environment at Harvard's Graduate School of Design." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 225-240. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992.

The migration of design education to reliance on computer-based techniques requires new ways of thinking about environments which can effectively support a diverse set of activities. Both from a spatial standpoint and a computing resource standpoint, design studios must be inevitably reconfigured to support new tools and reflect new ways of communicating. At Harvard's GSD, a commitment to incorporating computer literacy as a fundamental component of design education enables us to confront these issues through the implementation of a heterogeneous network imbedded in an electronic design environment. This evolving prototype of a new design studio, its development and its potential, will be the subject of this paper. A new style design environment is built upon an understanding of traditional techniques, and layered with an awareness of new tools and methods. Initially we borrow from existing metaphors which govern our interpretation of the way designers work. Next we seek to extend our thinking to include allied or related metaphors such as the library metaphor which informs collections of software and data, or the laboratory metaphor which informs workspace groupings, or the transportation metaphor which informs computer-based communications such as electronic mail or bulletin boards, or the utility services metaphor which informs the provision of network services and equipment. Our evaluation of this environment is based on direct feedback from its users, both faculty and students, and on subjective observation of the qualitative changes in communication which occur between and among these groups and individuals. Ultimately, the network must be judged as a framework for learning and evaluation, and its success depends both on its ability to absorb our existing metaphors for the process of design, and to prefigure the emerging metaphors to be envisioned in the future. 

Madrazo, Leandro. "Design as Formal Language." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 319-330. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Geometry and language are disciplines with which architecture holds a strong relationship. They have highly structured natures, which make them well-suited for computer implementation. Architecture, on the other hand, lacks such an abstract and hierarchical system. This is one of the main obstacles to the integration of computers in architecture at this point. This paper presents the results of a pedagogic approach based on the association of language, geometry and computers. This association can be successfully used in the education of basic design principles that, although not directly related with architecture, are fundamental to the education of an architect.
Smeltzer, Geert, W. Roelen, and Thomas W. Maver. "Design Modelling and Design Presentation from a Computer-Generated Image Towards a Multi-user Design System." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 137-144. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. CAD systems regularly offer new techniques for the presentation of design proposals like computer-generated (stereo-) images, animations, holography and virtual reality. These techniques are mainly used for the presentation of a final design or for the presentation of buildings that have already been constructed. As in the course of time the quality of the CAD systems and their users have improved enormously, it is also possible to use these systems for the evaluation of several temporary design proposals during the design process. Since'beautiful pictures'and'wonderful animations'have already shown their great value when presenting a design, it is sometimes as if CAD systems are considered suitable for this propose only. Even new techniques like virtual reality systems seem to be valued only through the'tinted glasses'of the presentation capabilities. Hardly any attention is paid to the possibilities that these new techniques offer as an instrument to support modelling and evaluation during the design process. This article will outline the results of research and development in the field of virtual reality. Virtual reality systems are based on the combination of a number of already existing presentation techniques like photo-realistic images, stereo images and real time animations. The added value of this type of CAD system is determined by the use of a new type of user interface. In effect this interface consists of sensors that register how its user moves and looks around. Through this, and by using a so- called'eye phone'(comparable to stereo headphones for sound) the user, with some imaginative powers, thinks he is standing in the environment that he modelled, or in front of his building design. After this we will first sketch the outlines of some presentation techniques, that can also be found in a virtual reality system. Special attention will be paid to some specific characteristics of these techniques themselves. Next, a more detailed description will be given of virtual reality systems, focusing on the system that is being developed at Calibre itself.
Villegas, A.F., and J.B. Esparta. "Didactic Interactive Tools in Architectural Education: a Case Study." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 145-155. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. This paper presents a proposal based on the use of new didactic interactive tools, mainly multimedia and hypertext, the combination of which is sometimes known as hypermedia.
Asanowicz, A., Adam Jakimowicz, A. Koperski, and B. Sawicki. "Education Center of Computer Aided Design: Technical University of Bialystok, Poland - Hopes, Possibilities, Limitations." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 267-272. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992.

This paper describes a Project of Professional Computer Aided Design Education in Bialystock (Poland).

Ronchi, Alfredo. "Education in Computing - Computing in Education." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 387-398. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The theme of this presentation which is entitled'Education in Computing & Computing in Education'is certainly of great importance in the present climate characterized on the one hand by availability of highly efficient hardware, low-cost procedures and environments which are of great interest also as far as education is concerned. Within this topic it is of primary importance to ask oneself the question'To learn architecture with computers must students learn computers?', and should the answer be'yes', to ask'To what extent? What level of complexity needs to be attained in order to realize this aim? What resources need to be dedicated to the learning of computer science? Should deep involvement be necessary, at what point should we refer to a computer scientist?'In an attempt to answer these questions, it is useful to examine the state of the art within computer science vs. engineering and computer science vs. education.
Redondo, Ernest, and Javier Monedero. "Electronic Collage." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 241-250. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. A painting is always a potential form of collage. The discovery made by Braque and Picasso was already implied in the carefully-done executions of tapestries backgrounds and mural decorating of all the italian and flemish paintings which started to be produced since Giotto's, where the represented and the presented were mixed up. And also, in a more pedantic way, in a famous painting of Courbet “L'Atelier du Peintre, allegorie reelle” (1885). In this work, the artist is shown sitting in front of his work, grasping a brush with his right hand while holding a palette, which is at the centre of the composition, in his left hand. There are some figures surrounding the master, some nearer, others further away, in the corners of the atelier one can still see silhouettes which we don't really know whether they belong to real characters or to painted ones on the master's canvases. This ambiguity brings us back to the foreground, to this central palette where the colours, distributed in heaps are, simultaneously, concretion and representation, real matter and figurative matter.
Späti, Jürg, and R.H.M. Van Zutphen. "Form and Performance in Design Education (Basic Architectural Unit 5)." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 535-542. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. There are some fundamental issues in todays architectural education which seem important yet very hard to achieve. One of this issues is the interdependence between design and technology. There is one group in architectural education which beliefs that the question of how to conceive (arch.) and how to construct (arch.) are interdependent. Consequently in this line of thinking the design concept requires verification on a technological level. The second issue which has often been debated is performance. Related to it is a line of thinking which is not satisfied with the formal issues of design - and how it looks, but wants to carry design to point where you also know - what it does and with it how much it costs. Cost-consciousness is the final issue addressed. We all know that there are limits to what a school can do or what a school can be. And, there is an essential difference between practise and education. Yet at the same time the argument is that only consciousness is required thus leading to the basic understanding that form performance and costs are interrelated and interdependent issues in architectural design.
Monedero, J., A. Casaus, and J. Coll. "From Barcelona. Chronicle and Provisional Evaluation of a New Course on Architectural Solid Modelling by Computerized Means." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 351-362. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The first step made at the ETSAB in the computer field goes back to 1965, when professors Margarit and Buxade acquired an IBM computer, an electromechanical machine which used perforated cards and which was used to produce an innovative method of structural calculation. This method was incorporated in the academic courses and, at that time, this repeated question “should students learn programming?” was readily answered: the exercises required some knowledge of Fortran and every student needed this knowledge to do the exercises. This method, well known in Europe at that time, also provided a service for professional practice and marked the beginning of what is now the CC (Centro de Calculo) of our school. In 1980 the School bought a PDP1134, a computer which had 256 Kb of RAM, two disks of 5 Mb and one of lO Mb, and a multiplexor of 8 lines. Some time later the general politics of the UPC changed their course and this was related to the purchase of a VAX which is still the base of the CC and carries most of the administrative burden of the school. 1985 has probably been the first year in which we can talk of a general policy of the school directed towards computers. A report has been made that year, which includes an inquest adressed to the six Departments of the School (Graphic Expression, Projects, Structures, Construction, Composition and Urbanism) and that contains interesting data. According to the report, there were four departments which used computers in their current courses, while the two others (Projects and Composition) did not use them at all. The main user was the Department of Structures while the incidence of the remaining three was rather sporadic. The kind of problems detected in this report are very typical: lack of resources for hardware and software and for maintenance of the few computers that the school had at that moment, a demand (posed by the students) greatly exceeding the supply (computers and teachers). The main problem appeared to be the lack of computer graphic devices and proper software. 
Sabater, Txatxo, and Albert Gassull. "From Notion to Motion." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 543-551. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Going from notion to motion is a way, or a working system. It means the illustration in motion of critical written topics. It's also an indirect channel to normalize the use of CAD and other kind of software and periferials in a School of Architecture held only by a user technology. We deal with texts and the choice of these is absolutely determinant. First of all because of the volition of using those which time has allowed to clearly decant and now are seen together with the answers or continuities that they have generated. That is to say, we do not write on the subjects we talk about, we illustrate, in motion, the arguments that authors have already written about them. We refer to notion in the sense that we always set off from a seminal argument. But also because we collect, if necessary, its revisions or extensions. This is to say we try to track the notion helping ourselves with the motion.
Madrazo, Leandro. "From Sketches to Computer Images: a Strategy for the Application of Computers in Architectural Design." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 331-350. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The use of computer tools in architectural practice has been steadily increasing in recent years. Many architectural offices are already using computer tools, mostly for production tasks. Hardly any design is being done with the computer. With the new computer tools, architects are confronted with the challenge to use computers to express their design ideas right from conception.  This paper describes a project made for a competition which recently took place in Spain. Sketches and computer models were the only tools used in designing this project. A variety of computer tools were used in different stages of this project: two dimensional drawing tools were used in the early stages, then a three-dimensional modelling program for the development of the design and for the production of final drawings, and a rendering program for final presentation images.
Baletic, Bojan. "Information Codes of Mutant Forms." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 173-186. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. If we assume that the statements from this quote are true, than we have to ask ourselves the question: “Should we teach architecture as we do?” This paper describes our experience in developing a knowledge base using a neural network system to serve as a “intelligent assistant” to students and other practicing architects in the conceptual phase of their work on housing design. Our approach concentrated on rising the awareness of the designer about the problem, not by building rules to guide him to a solution, but by questioning the categories and typologies by which he classifies and understands a problem. This we achieve through examples containing mutant forms, imperfect rules, gray zones between black and white, that carry the seeds of new solutions.
Fayos, F., F. Marco, and J. Roset. "Learning Physics by Computer in an Architectural School." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 473-476. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. A method is proposed for computerised problem-solving related to beam bending, using a programme of symbolic calculus. This approach permits easy posing of the equations to be solved. The algebraic logical enables the problem posed to be solved easily. The fact that the data can be entered in symbol form, not necessarily in numerical form, enables the student, when analysing the solution, to become familiar with the system behaviour, which is an essential aspect for support of the project task.
García, Agustín. "Learning Structural Design - Computers and Virtual Laboratories." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 525-534. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. This paper shows how the spreading use of computers can improve the quality of education, specially in the field of architecture. An Innovative Teaching Project oriented to the discipline Structural Design of Buildings has been implemented at the School of Architecture of Valencia. The main objective of this project is the transformation of the computer room into a virtual laboratory for simulating the behaviour of structural typologies using mathematical models of them. An environment, specially oriented to Structural Design, has been integrated in a Computer Aided Design platform to teach how design the Structure of Buildings.
Coyne, Richard, and Sidney Newton. "Metaphors, Computers and Architectural Education." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 307-318. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. In this paper we present the case for employing metaphor to explain the impact of technology. This contrasts with the empirical-theoretical method of inquiry. We also contrast two widely held metaphors of architectural education (the EPISTEMOLOGICAL and the COMMUNITY metaphors) and of the role of the computer (the MAINFRAME and the UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING metaphors). We show how in each case both metaphors result in different kinds of decision making in relation to resourcing an architecture school.
Fargas, Josep, and Pegor Papazian. "Modeling Regulations and Intentions for Urban Development: the Role of Computer Simulation in the Urban Design Studio." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 201-212. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. In this paper we present a strategy for modelling urban development in order to study the role of urban regulations and policies in the transformation of cities. We also suggest a methodology for using computer models as experimental tools in the urban design studio in order to make explicit the factors involved in shaping cities, and for the automatic visualization of projected development. The structure of the proposed model is based on different modules which represent, on the one hand, the rules regulating the physical growth of a city and, on the other hand, heuristics corresponding to different interests such as Real Estate Developers, City Hall Planners, Advocacy and Community Groups, and so on. Here we present a case study dealing with the Boston Redevelopment Authority zoning code for the Midtown Cultural District of Boston. We introduce a computer program which develops the district, adopting a particular point of view regarding urban regulation. We then generalize the notion of this type of computer modelling and simulation, and draw some conclusions about its possible uses in the teaching and practice of design.
Bradford, John, F.F. Ng, and Barry Will. "Models and Hypermedia for Architectural Education." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 19-42. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Hypermedia uses the hypertext style of interactive navigation through computer-based multimedia materials to provide access to a wealth of information for use by teachers and students. Academic disciplines concerned about the enlightenment of future designers of the built environment require an additional medium not yet available in hypermedia - interactive 3-D computer models. This paper discusses a hypermedia CAI system currently being developed at the University of Hong Kong for use in architectural education. The system uses interactive 3D computer models as another medium for instructional information, and as user orientation and database access devices. An object oriented, 3-D model hierarchy is used as the organizational structure for the database. A prototype which uses the system to teach undergraduate architecture students about a traditional Chinese temple is also illustrated. The prototype demonstrates the use of a computer as the medium for bilingual English and Chinese instruction.
Mortola, E, T Petric, and B Baletic. "Multi-Media Exploration of the Historical and Visual Environment of Split." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 5. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. This short paper recounts an attempt - at a time when the beautiful country of Yugoslavia was in the process of disintegration - by academics from four different countries to integrate their experiences of the information technologies in the production of a prototype multi-media archive which captures the visual, historical and cultural environment of the region of Split.
Carrara, G., Yehuda Kalay, and G. Novembri. "Multi-modal Representation of Design Knowledge." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 55-66. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if computers are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer-aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the multimodal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
Lentz, Uffe. "MultiMedia in Architectural Education." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 85-90. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. At nearly any occasion designers are encouraged to see, use or buy new persuasive electronic media. We are presented to a stack of electronic equipment, connected with a bunch of confusing wire. On the top of it all you will find a video camera and some huge loudspeakers.  
Day, Alan. "Multimedia Tools for the Investigation of Architectural History." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 67-74. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. This paper examines existing methods of teaching architectural history and identifies opportunities which are offered by computers for surveying, analysing and reconstructing the buildings of the past. A newly developed hypermedia system,'Microcosm', is described and its use for teaching history is discussed.
Daru, Roel, and M. Daru. "Personal Working Styles in the CMD Studio." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 451-472. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Normative and problem-solving approaches of architectural design ignore the personality aspects of the designing activity. Every architect approaches projects according to her/his own strategies and tactics. Usually they do not conform to the prescriptive models of design theoreticians. Computer aided design tools should be adapted to their utility within the strategies and tactics of each and every architectural student. We are testing the usefulness of CAAD tools developed by others or ourselves and identifying the needs for missing tools. It is already clear that many CAAD tools reflect the point of view of the programmer about strategies and tactics of designing and that they do not take into account the idiosyncrasies of the end user. Forcing the tools on students breeds the risk of fostering repulsion against ill-adapted tools, and consequently against CMD. Our research group pursues empirical research on working styles of designing by practising architects within the frame of a personality theory of actions. The results indicate that there are three main directions for designing strategies. If we want to take into account the real-world behaviour in design practice within architectural education, this implies the diversification of the exercises we offer to the students in threefold, corresponding with the three directions. To this, we add the didactic options of complementation, compensation and support, depending on what we know about the strong or weak points of the students involved. We have started proposing choices for the exercises of our design morphology studio. Students are offered approaches and tools we consider best adapted to their own working
Bayazit, Nigan. "Requirements of an Expert System for Design Studios." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 187-194. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The goal of this paper is to study problems of the transition from traditional architectural studio teaching to CAAD studio teaching which requires a CAAD expert system as studio tutor, and to study the behaviour of the student in this new environment. The differences between the traditional and computerized studio teaching and the experiences in this field are explained referring to the requirements for designing time in relation to the expertise of the student in the application of a CAD program. Learning styles and the process of design in computerized and non-computerized studio teaching are discussed. Design studio requirements of the students in traditional studio environment while doing design works are clarified depending on the results of an empirical study which explained the relations between the tutor and the student while they were doing studio critiques. Main complaints of the students raised in the empirical study were the lack of data in the specific design problem area, difficulties of realization of ideas and thoughts, not knowing the starting point of design, having no information about the references to be used for the specific design task, having difficulties in the application of presentation techniques. In the concluding parts of the paper are discussed the different styles of teaching and their relation to the CAAD environment, the transformation of the instructional programs for the new design environment, the future expectations from the CAAD programs, properties of the new teaching environment and the roles of the expert systems in design studio education.
Streich, Bernd. "Should We Integrate Programming Knowledge into the Architect's CAAD-Education? Basic Considerations and Experiences from Kaiserslautern." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 399-409. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992.

At the ECAADE-congress 1991 in Munich, the teaching concept of computer-aided architectural design of the faculty of architecture and environmental/urban planning at the University of Kaiserslautern has been presented. On that occasion, this brought about the question whether the curriculum should include programming knowledge. In this paper, the discussion shall be taken up again with several arguments in favour of the computer programming instruction. At first, a survey of the current discussion of the subject shall be given, then there will follow some reflections on the theoretical relationship between designing and programming, and finally, examples from the teaching experience in Kaiserslautern will be presented.

Dosti, P., Bob Martens, and A. Voigt. "Spatial Simulation in Architecture, City Development and Regional Planning." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 195-200. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The appropriate use of spatial simulation techniques considerably tends to increase the depth of evidence and the realistic content of the design and plannings to be described and moreover may encourage experimentations, trial attempts and planning variants. This means also the more frequent use of combinations between different techniques, having in mind that they are not equivalent, but making use of the respective advantages each offers. Until now the main attention of the EDP-Lab was directed on achieving quantity. For the time to come time it will be the formation of quality. The challenge in the educational system at the Vienna University of Technology is to obtain appropriate results in the frame- work of low-cost simulation. This aspect seems also to be meaningful in order to enforce the final implementation in architectural practice. 
zcan, Oguzhan Ö.. "Specification of a Hypermedia System for the Topkapi Palace." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 119-132. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. This paper summaries a doctoral investigation being carried out in the ABACUS group of the University of Strathclyde into the relevance of advanced multi-media technology to the explanation and investigation of the complex development of architecture which has historical and/or cultural significance.
Bertin, Vito. "Structural Transformations (Basic Architectural Unit 6)." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 413-426. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. While the teaching of the phenomenon of form as well as space is normally seen within an environment of free experimentation and personal expression, other directions prove to be worth of pursuit. The proposed paper represents such an exploration. The generation of controlled complexity and structural transformations have been the title of the project which forms the base of this paper. In it, the potential for creative development of the student was explored in such a way, that as in the sciences a process can be reproduced or an exploration utilized in further experimentation. The cube as a well proven B.A.U. or basic architectural unit has again been used in our work. Even a simple object like a cube has many properties. As properties are never pure, but always related to other properties, and looking at a single property as a specific value of a variable, it is possible to link a whole field of objects. These links provide a network of paths through which exploration and development is possible. The paper represents a first step in a direction which we think will compliment the already established basic design program. 
Kane, Andy, and Peter Szalapaj. "Teaching Design by Analysis of Precedents." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 477-496. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Designers, using their intuitive understanding of the decomposition of particular design objects, whether in terms of structural, functional, or some other analytical framework, should be able to interact with computational environments such that the understanding they achieve in turn invokes changes or transformations to the spatial properties of design proposals. Decompositions and transformations of design precedents can be a very useful method of enabling design students to develop analytical strategies. The benefit of an analytical approach is that it can lead to a structured understanding of design precedents. This in turn allows students to develop their own insights and ideas which are central to the activity of designing. The creation of a 3-D library of user-defined models of precedents in a computational environment permits an under-exploited method of undertaking analysis, since by modelling design precedents through the construction of 3-D Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) models, and then analytically decomposing them in terms of relevant features, significant insights into the nature of designs can be achieved. Using CAAD systems in this way, therefore, runs counter to the more common approach of detailed modelling, rendering and animation, which produces realistic pictures that do not reflect the design thinking that went into their production. The significance of the analytical approach to design teaching is that it encourages students to represent design ideas, but not necessarily the final form of design objects. The analytical approach therefore, allows students to depict features and execute tasks that are meaningful with respect to design students'own knowledge of particular domains. Such computational interaction can also be useful in helping students explore the consequences of proposed actions in actual design contexts.
Oxman, Robert. "The Library of Babel: the Representation of Technological Knowledge in Electronic Libraries." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 101-118. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. With the development of storage media such as the CD ROM, the availability and usage of very large data bases of information has dramatically opened new vistas for the creation of electronic libraries. From dictionaries and encyclopedias to historical treatises, the electronic packaging of large and cumbersome information sources has begun to demonstrate its utility and efficiency. Today the bridge to an unknown territory of electronic knowledge resources lies here at the boundary between the passive (though electronically accelerated) access to information through electronic books and the user interactive access to knowledge. This paper is about that boundary.
Cajati, Claudio. "The New Teaching of an Architect: the Róle of Expert Systems in Technological Culture." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 435-442. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. We already have the EEC, that is the European Economic Community. We have to build the CCE, that is the Common Cultural Europe. Architects and building engineers of any european country will be allowed to freely practise in any other country of the EEC. Of course, it is not only matter of coming down of the frontiers, of a greater labour mobility. Not even it will be enough that the university degree courses of the different countries agree to and put into effect the EEC common directives. They need rules and guidelines entering into the merits of practice: rules and guidelines which, rather than a legal and bureaucratic matter, must be the result of a common cultural and technical work, about clear and delimited questions of shared subjects, in which all the community countries be deeply concerned. Analogously, in the very field of research, the project “Human Capital and Mobility” has in view a greater european scientific and technological competitiveness, through an integration of human and material resources of different research centres, such as in shared-cost research projects and in concerted research actions. Such an integration is neither easy nor rapid. The political, social, cultural, technological peculiarities of the countries of the European Community certainly constitute an obstacle for the creation of a supernational cultural and technological pool. of common opportunities. These peculiarities, however, aren't only a restraint for the european community effort of unification and construction of shared goals, constraints, rules, methods, techniques, tools. They mean also a richness, an unrepeatable resourse: they are the result of a historical millenary stratification, which gave rise to urban and architectural contexts, to cultural and technological traditions it would be a serious mistake to waste.
Pozo, José. "The Use of Graphic Data Bases in the Teaching of Geometry." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 133-136. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. The paper doesn't intend to provide relevant innovations in the field of processing program designs or software technology. Although I respect other opinions, I feel that the uncontested aid which using computers to teach architecture means should preferably and primarily be oriented towards searching for ways to better transmit and explain what we have, up to now, been teaching through other means.  However, the novelty and advantages of reccuring to this new instrument should not make us fall into the mistake of letting it be used as a substitute of teachers'and students'work. The computer is simply another instrument, of great potential efficacy, but nevertheless just an instrument.
Ng, Edward. "Towards the 4th Dimension." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 91-100. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Fifteenth century Europeans'knew'that the sky was made of closed concentric crystal spheres, rotating around a central earth and carrying the stars and planets. That'knowledge'structured everything they did and thought, because it told them the truth. Then Galileo's telescope changed the truth. As a result, a hundred years later everybody'knew'that the universe was open and infinite, working like a giant clock. Architecture, music, literature, science, economics, art, politics - everything - changed, mirroring the new view created by the change in the knowledge. The medium by which perceptive intuition and the rigorous discipline of shaping became compatible was technology. Technelogos, the art of knowing how to make, fell naturally and historically into the realm of perceptive fundamentals... For the artist it verified scientifically what he had perceived emotionally, for the engineer it added the vast field of perceptive responses to the narrow limits of the laboratory experiment.
Colajanni, B, G. Pellitteri, and A. Scianna. "Two Approaches to Teaching Computers in Architecture: the Experience in the Faculty of Engineering in Palermo, Italy." In CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? 10th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, 295-306. eCAADe: Conferences. Barcelona, Spain, 1992. Teaching the use of computers in architecture poses the same kind of problems as teaching mathematics. To both there are two possible approaches. The first presents the discipline as a tool of which the merely instrumental aspect is emphasized. Teaching is limited to show the results obtainable by existing programs and how to get them. The second approach, on the contrary emphasizes the autonomous nature of the discipline, mathematics as much as computing, on the basis of the convincement that the maximum of instrumental usefulness can be obtained through the knowledge at the highest degree of generality and, then, of abstraction. The first approach changes little in the mind of the student. He simply learns that is possible, and then worthy doing, a certain amount of operations, mainly checks of performances (and not only the control of the aspect, now easy with one of the many existing CAD) or searches of technical informations in some database. The second approach gives the student the consciousness of the manageability of abstract structures of relationships. He acquires then the idea of creating by himself particular structures of relationships and managing them. This can modify the very idea of the design procedure giving the student the consciousness that he can intervene directly in every segment of the design procedure, reshaping it to some extent in a way better suited to the particular problem he is dealing with. Of course this second approach implies learning not only a language but also the capability of coming to terms with languages. And again it is a cultural acquisition that can be very useful when referred to the languages of architecture. Furthermore the capability of simulating on the computer also a small segment of the design process gives the student a better understanding both of the particular problem he is dealing with and of the very nature of design. As for the first effect, it happens whenever a translation is done from a language to another one. One is obliged to get to the core of the matter in order to overcome the difficulties rising from the different bias of the two languages. The second effect comes from the necessity of placing the studied segment in the general flow of the design process. The organisation in a linear sequence of action to be accomplished recursively in an order always varying in any design occasion is an extremely useful exercise to understand the signification and the techniques of formalisation of design problems.