This paper presents research in response to environmental concerns we face today. In a search for a better method to manage spaces and building resources consumed excessively through traditional top-down architectural solutions, the research began by speculating that the building spaces and resources can be managed by designing architectural systems that encourage a bottom-up approach. In other words, this research investigates how to design systems that encourage occupants and users of buildings to actively understand, manage and customise their own spaces. Specific attention is paid to the participation of building users because no matter how sophisticated the system is, the building will become as wasteful as conventional buildings if users cannot, or do not want to, utilise the system effectively. The research is still in its early stages. The intension of this paper is to provide a background to the issue, discuss researches and projects relevant to, but not necessarily about, architecture, and introduce a number of hypothesis and investigations to realise adaptable, participatory and sustainable environments for users.